1. Define hard water & soft water.
2. Define hardness of water & how to detect hardness.
3. Define hardness & give its type.
4. Mention the salts responsible for hardness of water.
5. What is meant by carbonate (or) temporary hardness & non - carbonate (or) permanent
6. Distinguish between temporary & permanent hardness.
7. How is hardness expressed?
8. List out the reason why calcium carbonate is used in expression of hardness of water.
9. A sample of water contains 60 mgs. of MgSO4 per litre. Calculate the hardness in terms
of CaCO3 equivalents.
10. A water sample contains 272 mgs. of CaSO4 73 mgs. of Mg(HCO3)2 per litre.
Calculate the total hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalent.
11. Mention the alkalinity causing ions.
12. What are the types of alkalinity?
13. How is alkalinity determined?
14. Give the structure of EDTA.
15. What is the principle of estimation of hardness by EDTA method?
16. What are the characteristics of potable water?
17. What are the steps involved in the treatment of water for domestic supply?
18. What is aeration of water & mention its use?
19. Give the function of sedimentation in treatment of water.
20. Define sterilization.
21. Give the description of sand filter.
22. Give the function of bleaching powder as a germicide.
23. Define the process coagulation in water treatment.
24. Define Break point Chlorination.
25. What is boiler feed water?
26. What are the disadvantages of using hard water in boilers (or) why water is softened
before using in boiler?
27. What are scales & sludge’s?
28. Mention the preventive measure for scale & sludge formation.
29. What are the disadvantages of scale & sludge’s?
30. What is meant by priming & foaming?
31. How priming & foaming can be prevented?
32. What is meant by caustic embrittlement? How it is prevented.
33. What are the reasons for Boiler corrosion?
34. What are the requisites of boiler feed water?
35. Define softening of water. How it is carried out?
36. Give some examples for cation exchange resin.
37. Give some examples for anion exchange resin.
38. How exhausted resin is regenerated in ion exchange process?
39. What are the advantages of ion exchange process?
40. List out the disadvantages of ion exchange process.
41. What are Boiler compounds?
42. What is carbonate conditioning?
43. What is the role of phosphate in the internal treatment of water?
44. Define Desalination.
45. What is meant by reverse osmosis?
46. What is meant by Calgon conditioning?
47. What is the principle involved in the desalination of water?
48. What are the advantages of reverse osmosis?
49. Give examples for the membrane used in reverse osmosis process.
50. What is Blow down operation?
51. How is boiler corrosion, due to dissolved oxygen removed?
52. How does dissolved carbon di oxide cause boiler corrosion?
53. Write briefly on disinfection of water by UV treatment.
54. What are the disadvantages of using ozone in disinfection of water?
55. How is water demineralised in an ion exchanger?
56. Define alkalinity.
57. Why ammonia buffer is used in EDTA titration?
58. Soft water is not Demineralised water (DM) whereas DM water is soft water –Justify.
59. How is boiler corrosion, due to dissolved carbon di oxide removed?
60. How does dissolved oxygen cause boiler corrosion?