GE2021 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 3 0 0 3
(Common to Civil, CSE, IT & Biomedical Degree Programmes)
The aim of this course is to create awareness in every engineering graduate about the
importance of environment, the effect of technology on the environment and ecological balance
and make them sensitive to the environment problems in every professional endeavour that they
At the end of this course the student is expected to understand what constitutes the environment,
what are precious resources in the environment, how to conserve these resources, what is the
role of a human being in maintaining a clean environment and useful environment for the future
generations and how to maintain ecological balance and preserve bio-diversity. The role of
government and non-government organization in environment managements.
UNIT I ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY 14
Definition, scope and importance of environment – need for public awareness - concept of an
ecosystem – structure and function of an ecosystem – producers, consumers and decomposers –
energy flow in the ecosystem – ecological succession – food chains, food webs and ecological
pyramids – Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the (a) forest
ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystems (ponds,
streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) – Introduction to biodiversity definition: genetic, species
and ecosystem diversity – biogeographical classification of India – value of biodiversity:
consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at
global, national and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – hot-spots of biodiversity –
threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts – endangered and
endemic species of India – conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and ex-situ conservation of
Field study of common plants, insects, birds
Field study of simple ecosystems – pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
UNIT II ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 8
Definition – causes, effects and control measures of: (a) Air pollution (b) Water pollution (c) Soil
pollution (d) Marine pollution (e) Noise pollution (f) Thermal pollution (g) Nuclear hazards – soil
waste management: causes, effects and control measures of municipal solid wastes – role of an
individual in prevention of pollution – pollution case studies – disaster management: floods,
earthquake, cyclone and landslides.
Field study of local polluted site – Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural.
UNIT III NATURAL RESOURCES 10
Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies- timber extraction,
mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people – Water resources: Use and overutilization
of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and
problems – Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using
mineral resources, case studies – Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by
agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water
logging, salinity, case studies – Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non
renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. case studies – Land resources: Land
as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification – role of
an individual in conservation of natural resources – Equitable use of resources for sustainable
Field study of local area to document environmental assets – river / forest / grassland / hill /
UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 7
From unsustainable to sustainable development – urban problems related to energy – water
conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management – resettlement and rehabilitation of
people; its problems and concerns, case studies – role of non-governmental organizationenvironmental
ethics: Issues and possible solutions – climate change, global warming, acid rain,
ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies. – wasteland reclamation –
consumerism and waste products – environment protection act – Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) act – Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) act – Wildlife protection act – Forest
conservation act – enforcement machinery involved in environmental legislation- central and state
pollution control boards- Public awareness.
UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 6
Population growth, variation among nations – population explosion – family welfare programme –
environment and human health – human rights – value education – HIV / AIDS – women and
child welfare – role of information technology in environment and human health – Case studies.
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
1. Gilbert M.Masters, “Introduction to Environmental Engineering and
Science”, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education ,2004.
2. Benny Joseph, “Environmental Science and Engineering”, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,
1. R.K. Trivedi, “Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules, Guidelines, Compliances and
Standards”, Vol. I and II, Enviro Media.
2. Cunningham, W.P. Cooper, T.H. Gorhani, “Environmental Encyclopedia”, Jaico Publ.,
House, Mumbai, 2001.
3. Dharmendra S. Sengar, “Environmental law”, Prentice hall of India PVT LTD, New Delhi,
4. Rajagopalan, R, “Environmental Studies-From Crisis to Cure”, Oxford University Press