Saturday, December 25, 2010

IT2353 Web Technology Anna University Question bank, question paper pervious year question paper for Unit 1 unit 2 unit3 unit 4 unit 5,important 2 marks and 16 marks questions

 Question Bank Unit – 1 
Part – A 
1. Differentiate Internet with Intranet. 
2. What are HTML tags? 
3. Write a script that inputs text from an HTML form and outputs the text in uppercase letters. 
4. What is the purpose of a MIME? 
5. What is the purpose of IMAP & MIME protocol? 
6. What are the features of JavaScript? 

Part – B 

1. Write Short notes on Various Protocols. 

2. Create a HTML document that includes 2 rows of frames with 2 frames in each row. The two left frames must occupy 25% of the width of the display. The bottom 2 frames must occupy 40% of the height of the display. The top left frame must display the name of your mother and all of her siblings (min2). The bottom left frame must display the name of your father and all of his siblings (min2). Each name in the left frames must be a link to a document that is displayed in the right frame when the link is selected. The documents in the right frames are short descriptions of the people.

3. Create a HTML form for taking sales orders for popcorn. Three text boxes are used at the top of the form to collect the buyers name and address. These are placed in a borderless table to force the text boxes to align vertically. A second table is used to collect the actual order. Each row of this table names a product with the content, displays the price and uses a text box with size set to 2 to collect the quantity ordered. The payment method is input by the user through one of the four radio buttons. You must have event handlers for the form elements that collect this information that check the input data for correctness. Messages in alert windows must be produced when error are detected. 

4. Create on-line recruitment form of an ABC Company and perform validation, Using JavaScript.Name, DOB (list), Phone No, Sex(radio), Address, E-mail, Highest Qualification, Branch, Percentage of marks. Validations: If Highest qualification B.E / B.Tech CSE/IT and percentage of marks is above 75 % then display Mr./Ms (name), the information provided by you has been registered with us. Else display Mr./Ms (name), the information provided by you is not registered. P.Kumar, Rajalakshmi Engineering College 1

5. Add two elements that users can click. Use the abc.gif image file as the first element. When the user clicks the image, display an alert dialog box with the text “you clicked the image.” For the second element, create a one-row table containing a text string. Set the table border to one. When the user clicks the table element, display an alert dialog box containing “you clicked the table”.

6. Consider a web based voting system. Create a HTML page to list all constituencies available in a given city. Selection of a constituency needs to display the details of party name, candidate name and a radio button contesting in that constituency. Allow the voter to vote for a specific candidate by choosing the radio button. 

7. Develop a JavaScript program that will determine whether a department-store customer has exceeded the credit limit on a charge account. For each customer, the following facts are available: Account number, Balance at the beginning of the month, Total of all items charged by this customer this month, Total of all credits applied to this customer's account this month and Allowed credit limit. The program should input each of these facts from prompt dialogs as integers, calculate the new balance (= beginning balance + charges – credits), display the new balance and determine whether the new balance exceeds the customer's credit limit. For customers whose credit limit is exceeded, the program should output HTML text that displays the message “Credit limit exceeded.” 

8. An integer is said to be prime if it is divisible by only 1 and itself. For example, 2, 3, 5 and 7 are prime, but 4, 6, 8 and 9 are not. Write a function that determines whether a number is prime. Use this function in a script that determines and prints all the prime numbers between 1 and 10,000. Display the results in a .

Unit – 2 
Part – A

1. Develop a DHTML page to change the background color using mouse over event on three circles containing different colors? 

2. What is the important feature of dynamic positioning?
3. Define data binding with its types? 
4. List the possible opacity attributes of the alpha filter?
5. What are filters and transitions? 
6. Define object referencing.
7. What is a dynamic style? 
8. What is the use of all and children in DHTML?
9. What are event bubblers? 
Part – B
1. Demonstrate a simple use of data binding with the tabular data control to update the contents of a span element with a program.
2. Create a web page that applies the invert filter to an image if the user moves the mouse over it.
3. Explain the properties of the event object.
 4. Write a DHTML to change the background color of a button, mouse over three colored table cells and the background color will change.
5. Create a web page which applies the glow filter to a hyperlink if the user moves the mouse over the link.
6. Write a DHTML to dynamically insert the mask filter in an image. Use mouse over on the image.
7. Write a DHTML to expose the concept of binding of an image and table.
 8. Write a DHTML to change the background image if the user moves the mouse over it.
9. Write a DHTML to shake the window of a button click. Make use of 2 buttons one button used to start the shaking and another button used to stop the shaking of window.
10. Explain briefly about Filters in detail with examples. 11. Explain about DHTML object model.

Unit – 3
Part- A
1. List the advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce system.
 2. Explain the term B2B, B2C, B2B, C2B.
3. List the commonly used video file formats.
4. How will you add background sounds and video to your web page?
5. Compare the various control structures of JavaScript and VBScript.
6. Differentiate client side script and server side script.
Part- B
7. Explain the various E-Business models in detail.
8. Explain in detail about the following servers with its flow of processing in authentication module in an application. i) IIS ii) Apache
9. Describe the system architecture of a multi-tier application.
 10. Discuss about online payment and security in detail
11. Create a script that repeatedly flashes an image on the screen. Do this by changing the visibility of the image. Allow users to control the blink speed.
12. How will you add audio and video in a web page?

Unit – 4
 Part – A
1. What is meant by Cookie? How will you create it using ASP?
 2. List the various methods in File System object?
3. Define ASP? List its advantages.
 4. What is meant by Session?
5. What is XSL and why it is used?
 6. What is XML? How is it different from HTML?
7. What is DTD?
8. Differentiate between DTD and XML Schema.
9. What is the purpose of Namespaces?
 10. Define Server side includes.

Part - B
11. Explain the various ASP objects with examples.
12. Develop an ASP application for a questionnaire, which has minimum of Eight questions. The questions and answers will be stored in a database. The questions will be posted to the client one in a page and collect the answer from the client. Evaluate the answers and inform the result score to the client in the final page.
 13. Write an ASP code to display the visitor’s information by using HTML forms.
14. List out the key objects of ASP and highlight the features of their properties, methods and events.
 15. Develop an ASP to display a different image each time a user visits a page.
16. Develop an ASP to find the type, capabilities and version of each browser that visits your site.
17. Create a XML document to store voter ID, voter name, address and date of birth details. Create a DTD to validate the document.
18. Explain how XML parser works? Write a XML document for displaying your contact details (address, e-mail, mobile no, etc)?
19. Explain in detail the various methods of DOM.
20. Explain how XML parser works?
Unit – 5
Part – A
1. What are the types of directives in JSP?
2. List the advantages of servlet over JSP.
 3. How does JSP work?
4. What is the difference between a generic servlet and a http servlet?
 5. What is a Servlet lifecycle?
6. List the four key components of JSP?
7. List the JSP implicit objects?
8. What is the purpose of plug-in?
Part – B
9. Describe the servlet architecture and the various interfaces invoked by the servlet container.
10. Write a servlet program that handles HTTP get request containing data that is supplied by the user as part of the request.
 11. Develop a servlet to display a different content each time a user visits a page.
 12. Explain how cookies are created and sessions are tracked by Servlet in detail with suitable example.
13. Create an address book servlet that allows the user to register for several mailing lists. The address book contains name, Address1, Address2, City, State. When name is given, it return an HTML page with all the information.
14. Write a JSP to demonstrate the usage of page and include directives.
 15. Develop a JSP page to display a different image each time a user visits a page and the images are links.
 16. Develop a JSP to find the type, capabilities and version of each browser that visits your site.
17. What does JSP scripting component include? Explain with a program.
18. Describe JSP Actions.

CS2401 Computer Graphics Anna University Question bank, question paper pervious year question paper for Unit 1 unit 2 unit3 unit 4 unit 5,important 2 marks and 16 marks questions

Part-A (2-MARKS)
1. What is the purpose of presentation graphics?
2. Define refresh buffer/frame buffer.
3. What is pixel?
4. Define aspect ratio.
5. What is Output Primitive?
6. What is DDA?
7. What are the disadvantages of DDA algorithm?
8. What is attribute parameter?
9. What is the basic line attributes?
10. What is meant by aliasing?
11. Define Translation.
12. Define Rotation.
14. Define Reflection.
15. Define Shear.
16. Define Window.
17. Define view port.
18. What is viewing transformation?
19. Define Clipping.
20. What are the types of Clipping?

Part-B (16-MARKS)
1. Explain the basic concept of Midpoint ellipse algorithm. Derive the decision parameters for
the algorithm and write down the algorithm steps. (16)
2. Explain two dimensional Translation and Scaling with an example. (16)
3. Obtain a transformation matrix for rotating an object about a specified pivot point. (16)
4. Explain DDA line drawing algorithm. (16)
5. Explain the steps in midpoint ellipse drawing algorithm. (16)
6. What is polygon clipping? Explain Sutherland-Hodgeman algorithm for polygon (16)
7. Explain about socket, connect, bind, listen and accept functions. (16)
8. Consider a triangle ABC whose coordinates are A[4,1], B[5,2], C[4,3]
a. Reflect the given triangle about X axis. (4)
b. Reflect the given triangle about Y-axis. (4)
c. Reflect the given triangle about Y=X axis. (4)
d. Reflect the given triangle about X axis. (4)
9. Explain Sutherland Hodgeman polygon clipping algorithm. Explain the (16)
Disadvantage of it and how to rectify this disadvantage.
10. Explain Two Dimensional Viewing. (16)
11. Explain Bresenham’s Line Drawing Algorithms.
Part-A (2-MARKS)
1. Categorize the 3D representations?
2. What Boundary representation?
3. What space-partitioning representation?
4. What is Blobby Object?
5. What is projection?
6. What are the types of projection?
7. What is parallel projection?
8. What is Perspective projection?
9. What is chromaticity?
10. Define Color model.

11. What are the uses of chromaticity diagram?
12. What is HSV model?
13. what for CMY color model used?
14. What are the parameters in the HLS color model?
15. Define Computer animation.
16. What are the steps in animation sequence?
17. How frame-by-frame animation works?
18. What is morphing?
19. What are the methods of motion specifications?
Part-B (16-MARKS)
1. Explain 3D basic transformation with an example. (16)
2. Design a storyboard layout and accompanying key frames for an animation (16)
3. How to specify objects motion in an animation system. (16)
4. Derive the 3D transformation matrix for rotation about
(i) an arbitrary axis (8)
(ii) an arbitrary plane (8)
5. Explain RGB, CMY, YIQ and YUV color models. (16)
6. Brief about select function and shut down functions. (16)
7. Explain the properties of B spline. How it is differ from Bezier? (16)
8. How to represent an object on 3D scene? (16)
9. Explain three dimensional geometric and modeling transformations. (16)
10. Explain three dimensional Viewing and Functions. (16)
11. Draw the CIE chromaticity diagram and explain. (16)
12. Explain different types of color model in detail. (16)
Part-A (2-MARKS)
1. Give some Multimedia applications.
2. What are the multimedia elements?
3. What is Holography?

4. What is hologram?
5. What are the important processes in image processing?
6. What are complex image enhancement capabilities?
7. What is VGA mixing?
8. What is Dual-buffered VGA mixing / scaling?
9. What are hypermedia documents?
10. What are the sub-systems in DSP?
11. What are the types of images based on multimedia?
12. What does non-visible images refer?
13. What are abstract images?
14. What is DVI?
15. What is MIDI?
16. What is Apple's Quick time?
17. What is JPEG?
18. What is called Asymmetrical compression based on Compression?
19. What are the considerations in Multimedia storage?
20. What are the strengths of object oriented s/w?
Part-B (16-MARKS)
1. Explain list of Multimedia applications. Explain them briefly. (16)
2. Briefly discuss the history and future of Multimedia. (16)
3. Explain the characteristics of MDBMS. (16)
4. Write short notes on multimedia system architecture. (16)
5. What is multimedia? Explain the properties of multimedia systems. (16)
6. Explain the data stream characteristics for continuous media. (16)
7. Explain the different file formats used in multimedia. (16)
8. Suggests with reasons 5 potential applications of multimedia other than the (16)
applications in the field of entertainment and education.
9. Explain various multimedia interface standards. (16)
10. Describe various building block of multimedia system. (16)
11. Write short notes on MDBMS. (16)
12. Explain Database Organization for Multimedia Applications. (16)

13. Explain 3-D Technology and Holography. (16)
14. (i) Explain hypermedia and its functions. (8)
(ii) Short notes on Multimedia databases. (8)
Part-A (2-MARKS)
1. Define Cadence.
2. Say some loss less compression standards?
3. Say some loss compression standards?
4. What are the advantages of CCITT Group 3 1D?
5. What is the disadvantage of CCITT Group 3 2D Scheme?
6. What is Luminance?
7. What are the levels of definition in JPEG standards?
8. Define Quantization.
. 9. What are the controls in VCR paradigm?
10. What are types of moving picture?
11. What are the factors that affect video performance?
12. What is fractal?
. 13. What are multimedia file formats?
14. What is digital pen?
15. What are the components of PEN?
16. What are the display performance issues?
17. What is roping?
18. Write the four basic technologies used for flat panel displays.
19. What are the components of Laser printer?
20. What are the main characteristics of voice recognition system?
Part-B (16-MARKS)
1. List the types of fixed and removable storage devices available for multimedia,
and discuss the strength and weakness of each one. (16)
2. Explain the data compression technique used in multimedia. (16)

3. Define MIDI. List its attribute. Compare and contrast the use of MIDI and
digitized audio in multimedia production. (16)
4. List and explain important steps and considerations in recording and editing digital
audio. (16)
5. Describe the capabilities and limitations of bitmap images and vector images. (16)
6. Define animation and describe how it can be used in multimedia. (16)
7. Explain Color, Gray Scale and Still Video Image Compression method. (16)
8. Explain data and file format standards. (16)
9. Explain multimedia input and output Technologies. (16)
10. Uses of magnetic Storage in Multimedia Systems. (16)
Part-A (2-MARKS)
1. What are the design issues for multimedia authoring?
2. What are the types of Multimedia authoring Systems?
3. Classify the User interface development tools?
4. What is the purpose of zooming?
5. What is panning?
6. What are the steps needed for Hypermedia report generation?
7. Define mail message.
8. What are the components of a distributed Multimedia system?
9. What are the characteristics of Document store?
10. What are key issues in data organization for multimedia systems?
11. What are the key elements in object server architecture of multimedia applications?
12. What are the functions performed by object request broker?
13. What are the issues in database replication techniques?
14. What are the types of database replication?
15. What is the primary n/w topologies used for multimedia?
16. Give the primary goal of MAPI.
17. What is the purpose of MIME?
18. What are the characteristics of image and still video stores?
19. What are the services provided by a directory service agent?

20. What are the services provided by User Interface Agent?
Part-B (16-MARKS)
1. Distinguish between multimedia system and hypermedia system. (16)
2. (i) List the main attribute, benefits and drawbacks of 3 types of authoring systems. (8)
(ii) Write short notes on following.
a. Mobile messaging. (4)
b. Document management. (4)
4. Explain time based and object oriented multimedia authoring tool. (16)
5. What is editing features? Explain it briefly. (16)
6. Briefly explain integrated document management in multimedia. (16)
7. How to create hypermedia message? Give an example also explain hypermedia
Message components. (16)
8. Explain Distributed multimedia systems . (16)
9. Explain multimedia Authoring and User Interface design. (16)

CS2354 ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE ANNA UNIVERSITY Anna University Question bank, question paper pervious year question paper for Unit 1 unit 2 unit3 unit 4 unit 5,important 2 marks and 16 marks questions



1.      Differentiate desktop, Embedded and server computers?
2.      Define the following terms
a.       Execution time
b.      CPU time
c.       Throughput    
3.      What are dhrystone benchmarks?
4.      What are Wheatstone  benchmarks?
6.      What are the different level of program used for evaluating the performance of a machine?
7.      What is SPEC?
8.      What is a kernel?
9.      Mention the difference between desktop, Embedded and server benchmarks?
10.  Define Total execution time
11.  Define Weighted execution time
12.  Define Normalized execution time
13.   State Amdahl’s law
14.  Define Speedup?
15.  Give the CPU performance equation and define the following
a.       CPI
b.      Instruction count
16.  What is the principle of locality?
17.  What are the various classes of instruction set architecture?
18.  What is Little Endian and big Endian?
19.  What is effective address and pc relative address?
20.  What are the various addressing modes?
21.  What are modulo and bit reverse addressing modes?
22.  Comment the type and size of operands?
23.  Explain the operand for media and signal processing
24.  Give the various categories of instruction operators with example for each?
25.  Commend the operation for media and signal processing?
26.  What are the different type of control flow instructions?
27.  Give the major methods of evaluating branch condition, their advantages and disadvantages
28.  Explain instruction coding and its type?
29.  What are the various compiler optimization available ?
30.  What is a media processor? Give example
31.  Compare MIPS and TM 32 processor
32.  What is a vector processor?
33.  What is Flynn’s taxonomy ?
34.  Explain the various methods by which data level parallelism is obtained?
35.  Compare RISC and CISC machines.
36.  Differentiate von Neumann and hardware architecture.
37.  What is pipelining?
38.  What are the basic of RISC instruction  set architecture?
39.  What are the different stages of pipelined architecture?
40.  Briefly describe basic performance issues in pipelining?
41.  What are hazards? Mention its types?
42.  How data hazards can be minimized?
43.  What are structural hazards? how it can be minimized?
44.  What are control hazards?
45.  How is pipelining implemented?
46.  What makes pipelining hard to implement?
47.  Mention the various exceptions and methods to deal with exceptions?
48.  What is score boarding?
49.  What are linear pipeline processors?
50.  What is clock skewing?
51.  Differentiate static and dynamic pipelining?
52.  What are non linear pipeline processor?
53.  What is latency?
54.  What is reservation table?
55.  What are forbidden and permissible latencies ? give example
56.  What are contact cycle?
57.  What is collision vector?
58.  Explain pipeline throughput and efficiency
59.  How do you compute pipeline CPI?
60.  What is a basic block?
61.  What is ILP?
62.  What are forwarding and bypassing techniques?
63.  What is loop-level parallelism ?
64.  What are the various dependences? How to overcome it?
65.  How to avoid hazards?
66.  What are the different name dependences ?
67.  What is a control dependence?
68.  What is a data dependence?
69.  What is dynamic scheduling? Compare dynamic scheduling with static pipeline scheduling?
70.  Differentiate in-order and out-of-order execution of instruction?
71.  What is imprecise exception?
72.  Explain Tomasulo’s algorithm briefly?
73.  Explain WAR hazards?
74.  Explain WAW hazards?
75.  Explain RAW hazards?
76.  What is a reservation station ? mention its fields?
77.  Give the merits of Tomasulo’s algorithm?
78.  How to remove control dependences?
79.  Compare 1 bit and 2 bit prediction schemes?
80.  Give the merits and demerits of 2 bit prediction scheme?
81.  What are correlating branch predictors?
82.  What is register renaming?
83.  What is commit stage?
84.  How to take advantages of more ILP with multiple issue?
85.  Compare superscalar and VLIW processors?
86.  What are statically scheduled superscalar processors?
87.  How multiple instruction issue is handled by dynamic scheduling ?
88.  What are limitations of ILP?
89.  Explain P6 micro architecture?
90.  Compare Pentium III and Pentium IV processors?
91.  What is thread level parallelism(TLP)?
92.  Explain how to exploit TLP using ILP data path?
93.  Give the practical limitation on exploiting more ILP?
  1. What is the role of compiler in exploiting ILP?
  2. Give the typical latencies of FP operations and loads and stores.
  3. What is loop unrolling?
  4. Give the summary of loop unrolling and scheduling.
  5. What is register pressure?
  6. How loop unrolling and pipeline scheduling can be used with static multiple issue?
  7. What is a static branch prediction?
  8. What are the various methods available for static branch prediction?
  9. What is static multiple issue?


1.      With reference to linear processors, explain pipelining in detail.
2.      With non-linear processors, explain pipelining with latency analysis, make use of   relevant state diagrams whenever required.
3.      Explain in details the various pipeline hazards and methods to overcome
4.      Describe the classical 5-stage pipelining for a RISC processor.
5.      Explain in details how the pipelining is implemented with reference to a MIPS processor?
6.      Describe in details what makes pipelining hard to implement?
7.      What are exceptions? Mention its types. Explain its requirements and need for maintaining precise exceptions.
8.      What is dynamic scheduling ? explain with suitable examples the Tomasulo’s algorithm for MIPS processor
9.      What is branch prediction ? explain the various schemes in detail.
10.  Explain in detail the hardware based speculation for a MIPS processor, explain how multiple issue is handled with speculation
11.  Compare Tomasulo’s algorithm and hardware based speculation
12.  Explain in detail the limitations of ILP with a special mention on realizable processors
13.  Indentify  and justify the following fallacies/pitfalls
a.       Processors with lower CPI will always be faster
b.      Processors with faster clock  rate will always be better
14.  With suitable illustrative examples, explain how compiler techniques can be exploited for achieving ILP?
15.  Explain in detail about static branch prediction.



  1. Explain static multiple issue with respect to VLIW approach?
  2. Compare local scheduling and global scheduling.
  3. What is trace scheduling?
  4. Discuss the various problems associated with the VLIW processor and measures for their mitigation.
  5. What is loop carried dependence and dependence distance?
  6. What is the need to detect loop dependences?  How does the compiler detect it?
  7. What is interprocedural analysis?
  8. What is copy propagation?
  9. What is tree height reduction?
  10. What are recurrences?
  11. What is symbolic loop unrolling and mention its techniques?
  12. Explain software pipelining and trace scheduling.  Compare them.
  13. What is critical path?
  14. Explain the methods involved in trace scheduling.
  15. What is superblock?
  16. What is tail duplication?
  17. What are predicated instructions?  What are its limitations?  Give the processors that support conditional move.
  18. What are the capabilities required to speculate ambitiously?
  19. Mention the methods to speculate ambitiously preserving the exception behavior.
  20. What is fast mode?
  21. What are poison bits?
  22. What is a sentinel?
  23. Compare hardware and software speculation mechanisms.
  24. What is an IA-64 ISA?
  25. What are the various components of IA-64 register model?
  26. What is a register stack engine?
  27. What is a bundle?
  28. What are NaTs and NaTVals?
  29. How can a deferred exception be resolved?
  30. What are advanced loads and ALAT?
  31. Explain Itanium processor.
  32. What are the pipeline stages available in an Itanium processor?
  33. What is a crusoe processor?


  1. With an example, explain static multiple issue in a VLIW processor?
  2. Explain in detail about multiple issue in a EPIC processor?
  3. Explain in detail how compiler support can be used to increase the amount of parallelism that can be exploited in a program.
  4. With examples, explain how do you detect and enhance Loop Level Parallelism?
  5. Explain software pipelining techniques in detail.
  6. Explain the need for hardware support for exposing more parallelism at compile time.
  7. Explain briefly about conditional or predicated instructions and the limiting factors affecting their complete usefulness.
  8. Explain compiler speculation with hardware support.
  9. Compare Hardware and Software speculation mechanisms.
  10. Explain Intel IA-64 Architecture in detail with suitable reference to Itanium processor.
  11. Discuss the role of ILP in embedded and mobile applications.



  1. Give the taxonomy of parallel architectures.
  2. What are the merits of MIMD multiprocessors?
  3. What is a thread?  Explain thread level parallelism.
  4. What are centralized shared memory architectures and symmetric shared memory multiprocessors?
  5. What are distributed memory architectures?
  6. What is distributed shared memory architecture?
  7. What is a multicomputer?
  8. What are message-passing multiprocessors?
  9. What is RPC?
  10. What are the performance metrics for communication mechanisms?
  11. What are the advantages of different communication mechanisms?
  12. What are the major advantages for message passing communication?
  13. What is a shared virtual memory?
  14. What are MPPs?
  15. What are the challenges involved in parallel processing?
  16. What are OLTP, DSS and Altavista?
  17. What is a FFT Kernel, LU Kernel and Barnes and ocean application?
  18. How do you estimate the performance on parallel multiprocessors?
  19. What are private and shared data?
  20. What is multiprocessor Cache Coherence?
  21. What is cache coherence problem and when do you say a memory system is coherent?  What are cache coherence protocols?
  22. What is cache consistency?
  23. What is write serialization?
  24. What is snooping?  What are the various snooping protocols?
  25. What are write invalidate and write update protocols?
  26. What are the performance differences between write update and write invalidate protocols?
  27. What are write through and write back caches?
  28. What are ownership misses and coherence misses?
  29. Compare true sharing and false sharing misses.
  30. What are cold misses, coherence misses and conflict misses?
  31. What is a working set effect?
  32. Give a performance of snooping cache schemes.
  33. Give an example of multiprocessor.
  34. What is the need for distributed shared-memory architectures?
  35. What is a directory protocol?
  36. What are local node, home node and remote node?
  37. Give a summary of performance of distributed shared memory multiprocessors.
  38. What is an atomic exchange?
  39. What are the various atomic synchronization primitives?
  40. What is load locked and store conditional instructions?
  41. What are spin locks?
  42. What is barrier synchronization?
  43. What is sense-reversing barrier?
  44. Explain spin lock with exponential backoff?
  45. What are queuing locks?  How does it work?
  46. What are gather stage and release stage in barrier synchronization technique?
  47. What is a combining tree?
  48. What is sequential consistency?
  49. What are data races?
  50. Explain relaxed consistency models.
  51. What is multithreading?  Compare its types.
  52. What is SMT?  What are the design challenges in SMT processors?
  53. What are the potential advantages from SMT?
  54. What is multilevel inclusion and how is it implemented?
  55. What happens to automatic enforcement of inclusion when the block size differs?
  56. What are non blocking caches and latency hiding?
  57. Why is nonbinding prefetch critical?
  58. What are the complications that arise while implementing prefetch?
  59. How speculation is used to hide latency in strict consistency models?
  60. How is virtual memory support used to build shared memory?
  61. What are DVMs and SVMs?
  62. How performance of parallel processors is measured?
  63. Compare memory constrained and time constrained scaling.
  64. Explain sun wildfire prototype.
  65. What is Coherence memory replication and COMA?  What are the types of COMA?


  1. Give an overview of the taxonomy of parallel architectures.
  2. Explain in detail the various performance metrics for communication mechanisms and discuss their advantages and challenges of parallel processing.
  3. Explain in detail how parallel processing in various workloads affect their performance characteristics.
  4. Explain in detail the symmetric shared memory architectures with reference to multiprocessor cache coherence problem.
  5. Explain in detail the schemes available for enforcing coherence.  Discuss its implementation techniques with suitable state diagrams.
  6. With relevant graphs, discuss the performance of symmetric shared-memory multiprocessors for various workloads.
  7. Explain in detail the distributed shared memory architecture highlighting the directory based cache coherence protocol.  Substantiate your explanation with suitable examples and state diagrams.
  8. With relevant graphs, discuss the performance of distributed shared memory multiprocessors.
  9. Explain in detail the need for synchronization and how it is achieved in a multiprocessor?  Discuss the associated implementation issues.
  10. Discuss the synchronization mechanisms for larger scale multiprocessors.
  11. Explain in detail the memory consistency models.
  12. Explain how thread level parallelism within a processor can be exploited?  With suitable diagrams, explain simultaneous multithreading, its design challenges and potential performance enhancements.
  13. Explain inclusion and its implementation.
  14. Briefly explain how virtual memory can be used to build shared memory units.
  15. How do you measure performance of parallel processors?
  16. Explain Sun’s Wildfire architecture and its performance characteristics..
  17.  “Multiprocessors are free” -- Explain this fallacy.

                                                            MEMORY AND I/O


  1. What are the levels in a typical memory hierarchy in embedded, desktop and server computers?
  2. Define the terms: Cache, Cache hit and Cache miss, Miss rate and Miss penalty.
  3. Compare temporal and spatial locality.
  4. What is a page fault?
  5. What is a memory stall cycle and give its formula?
  6. What are the four common questions for the first level of memory hierarchy?  Summarize their solutions.
  7. What are the different cache configurations?
  8. What is a valid bit with reference to cache?
  9. Define the terms: Block address and Block offset, Tag and Index field.
  10. What is a LRU algorithm?
  11. Compare write through and write back.
  12. What is a dirty bit?
  13. What are the two options available on a write miss?
  14. How do you calculate the width of index field for a set associative cache?
  15. What is a victim buffer?
  16. What is average memory access time and give its formula?
  17. Give the relation between average memory access time and processor performance.
  18. For an out-of-order execution processor, how do you define miss penalty?
  19. What are the various cache optimizations available?  Summarize them categorically.
  20. How to reduce cache miss penalty?  What are the various optimizations available?
  21. Should the cache be made faster to keep pace with the CPU speed or should its size be made larger to overcome the widening gap between CPU and main memory?  Which is optimal?
  22. Compare local and global miss rate.
  23. What is multilevel inclusion?
  24. What are critical word first and early restart techniques?
  25. Should read misses be given priority over writes?  Comment.
  26. What is write merging?
  27. What is a victim cache?
  28. Summarize the miss penalty reduction techniques.
  29. How to reduce miss rate?  Categorize misses.
  30. What are the different types of conflict misses?
  31. What is a thrash?
  32. Larger block sizes will reduce compulsory misses.  Is the statement true or false?  Justify you answer.
  33. How to reduce the capacity misses and what are the associated drawbacks?
  34. How miss rates improve with higher associativity?
  35. What is 2:1 cache rule of thumb?
  36. What are way prediction and pseudo associative caches?
  37. Give the relationship between regular hit time, pseudohit time and miss penalty.
  38. What is loop interchange and blocking?
  39. What is blocking factor?
  40. Summarize how cache miss rate can be reduced.
  41. How to reduce cache miss penalty or miss rate by parallelism?
  42. What is a lockup free cache?
  43. What is a “hit under multiple miss” or “miss under miss”?
  44. Explain hardware prefetching of instructions and data.
  45. What is compiler controlled prefetching?
  46. Compare register and cache prefetch.
  47. What is a nonbinding prefetch?
  48. Give a summary of how cache miss penalty or miss rate can be reduced by parallelism.
  49. How avoiding address translation during indexing of the cache will reduce ht time?
  50. What is a virtual cache?
  51. What is page level protection?
  52. What is a processor-identifier tag?
  53. What is page coloring?
  54. Explain how pipelined cache access can be used to reduce hit time?
  55. What is a trace cache?
  56. Explain the various techniques available for improving the performance of main memory.
  57. How does interleaving improve the performance of a main memory unit?  What is interleaving factor?
  58. How do you determine the number of banks for main memory?  What are the demerits memory banks?
  59. How do independent memory banks support higher bandwidth for main memory?
  60. Compare access time and cycle time.
  61. Compare DRAM and SRAM.
  62. What is RAS and CAS in DRAM?
  63. Give the internal organization of a 64M DRAM.
  64. What is DIMM?
  65. What are the various memory modules available for embedded processors?
  66. How do you improve memory performance in a DRAM?
  67. What is fast page mode?
  68. What is SDRAM?
  69. What is RAMBUS, RDRAM and DRDRAM?
  70. Compare RAMBUS and DDR SDRAM.
  71. What is virtual memory?
  72. How does the cache and virtual memory differ?
  73. What are pages, segments and paged segments with respect to virtual memory?
  74. Where can a block be placed in main memory?
  75. How is a block found if it is in main memory?
  76. What is a page table and inverted page table?
  77. What is a translation lookaside buffer?
  78. Which block should be replaced on a virtual memory miss?
  79. What is a use bit?
  80. What happens on a write in main memory?
  81. Explain the techniques for fast address translation.
  82. What is a PTE?
  83. How is the page size selected?
  84. What is internal fragmentation in a virtual memory?
  85. What is a process? Compare process switch and context switch. 
  86. How to protect processes?
  87. What is base and bound?
  88. What is a kernel process and system call?
  89. What is a paged virtual memory?
  90. What are the various protection fields available in an Alpha architecture?
  91. What is a segmented virtual memory?
  92. Explain protection in Intel Pentium.
  93. What are Trojan horses?
  94. What is a descriptor table and segment descriptor in an Intel processor?
  95. What are the various PTEs in Intel processor?
  96. Compare global and local address space in a Pentium processor.
  97. What is call gate?
  98. In a protection mechanism, what happens if caller and callee are “mutually suspicious” so that neither trust the other?
  99. Compare protection model for virtual memory in Alpha and IA-32.
100. How does speculative execution of conditional instructions affect the    Memory system?
101. What is PAL mode in an ALPHA memory hierarchy?
102.Does I/O performance matter?
103.What is throughput?
104.Does CPU performance matter?
105.Does Performance matter?
106.What are the different storage devices available?
107.Define the terms: (a) Seek time (b) Rotational latency with reference to hard disk.
108.What is queuing delay?
109. How do you compute area density of magnetic disk?
110.What is a Flash memory?
111.What is split transaction?
112. What are the various bus standards available?
113.What is SCSI?
114. What is memory mapped I/O and Interrupt driven I/O?
115.What are done bit and error bit used for?
116. What is polling?
117. How do you interface storage devices to the CPU?
118. What is Reliability, Availability and Dependability with reference to storage systems?
119. What is a latent error and latent error processing?  Compare latent error processing with effective error processing.
120. What is module reliability and module availability with reference to storage systems?
121. What are the various storage faults?  How reliability can be ensured?
122. Explain the following terms: RAID, MTTF, Hot swapping?
123. What is mirroring?
124. What is bit interleaved parity and block interleaved parity?
125. What is P+Q redundancy?
126.What is Berkeley’s Tertiary Disk?
127. Compare transient fault and hard faults.
128. What is Tandem and VAX?
129. How do you measure I/O performance?
130. Which I/O devices can connect to a computer system?
131. How many I/O devices can connect to a computer system?
132. What is response time?
133.Compare Throughput vs Response time.
134. How do you categorize the interaction with a computer?
135.What is transaction time?
136. What is queuing theory?
137.What is queue or waiting line?
138. What is Little’s law?
139. How do you measure server utilization?
140. How do you measure average residual service time?
141.What is SPEC SFS?
142. What is DMA and virtual DMA?
143. What is NAS?
144. Briefly explain the design of I/O system


  1. Describe in detail how the four memory hierarchical questions can be handled?  Illustrate the answers with an example.
  2.  Explain how cache performance is measured and how it can be improved?
  3.  Discuss in detail the various techniques available for reducing cache miss penalty?
  4.  Discuss how cache behavior can be improved by reducing the miss rate?
  5.  Discuss how reducing cache miss penalty or miss rate by parallelism would provide scope for performance improvement in a memory module?
  6.  Explain how reducing hit time in a cache would speedup the memory module?
  7.  Describe in detail how performance improvement of main memory could be targeted?
  8.  Elaborate on the various memory technologies that you know and give a comparative study.
  9.  With a neat hypothetical memory hierarchical picture, describe the concept of virtual memory and analyze the memory hierarchical questions with reference to it.  Explain how performance improvement is achieved?
  10.  Explain the paged and segmented virtual memory protections each with a suitable example.  Compare them.
  11.  Discuss the vital issues associated in designing a memory hierarchical module.
  12. Discuss in detail the various types of storage devices.
  13. Explain the Bus standards and the interfaces.  With timing diagrams, explain the read and write operations occurring in a typical bus.
  14.  Explain with a neat diagram, the interfacing of storage devices to the CPU.
  15. Discuss Reliability, Availability and Dependability for storage devices in detail.
  16.  Explain RAID architecture in detail.
  17.  Discuss about errors and failures of storage devices.
  18.  Explain in detail how I/O performance of storage systems can be measured?
  19.  Using queuing theory, explain how server utilization can be computed?
  20. Comment on the various benchmarks available for performance measurement of storage systems.
  21. Describe in detail the process involved in designing an I/O system.
  22. Discuss the role of a storage device in a digital camera.



1.      What is multithreading?
2.      Write short notes on multi-core processors?
3.      What are the different hardware multithreading techniques ?
4.      What is cycle-by-cycle interleaving,
5.      Write short notes on block interleaving?
6.      What is simultaneous multithreading.?
7.      Discuss Flynn’s taxonomy?
8.      Write about SISD?
9.      Write about MISD
10.  Write about SIMD?
11.  Define MIMD?
12.  What is Simultaneous multithreading?
13.  Define Chip multiprocessing


1.      Explain in Detail about Multicore architectures
2.      Discuss in detail about the applications  benefit   from multicore?
3.      Explain in detail about software multithreading?
4.      Discuss Flynn’s taxonomy?
5.      Explain in detail about hardware multithreading techniques ?
6.      Explain in detail about CMP architecture and SMT architecture ?
7.      Discuss the design issues of CMP and SMT architecture?
8.      Discuss about Intel multi-core architecture.
9.      Describe in detail about SUN CMP architecture
10.  Discuss in detail about heterogenous multi-core processors.
11.  Explain about IBM Cell Processor