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EC2024 Bio-medical Instrumentation ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION BANK , QUESTION PAPER FOR UNIT1,UNIT2,UNIT3,UNIT4,UNIT5 IMPORTANT 2 MARKS AND 16 MARKS QUESTIONS



QUESTION BANK

PART A

UNIT I

  1. Give the values for the following: a) total volume of blood in lungs, b) systolic blood pressure, c) diastolic blood pressure and d) total duration of cardiac cycle.
  2. Name the principal ions involved in the phenomena of producing cell potentials.

  1. When measuring living cells with transducers how will you deal with the possibility of energy concentration which will damage the cell?
  2. Distinguish absolute and relative refractory period.

  1. What is a spinal cord?

  1. Explain the structure of Cell

  1. Define DNA

  1. Define resting and action potential

  1. What are resting and action Potentials
  2. What is meant by central nervous system

  1. Define protoplasm

  1. What are the electrolytes present in the cell

  1. What is the nature of cancer cell

  1. Define ICF and ECF

  1. What are the characteristics of resting potential
  2. Define Goldman’s equation and Nernst equation of resting potential

  1. Define sodium pump

  1. Define arteries and veins

  1. Define systolic and diastolic pressure

  1. What are the different values present in the heart
  2. Define heart beat.

  1. Define neuron, nerve fiber

  1. Define synapse

  1. Define residual volume and tidal volume

  1. Define transducer and its types

  1. Mention some active transducer
  2. List some passive transducer.

  1. Define the principle involved in optical fibre temperature measurement.

UNIT II

  1. State the requirements for physiological amplifiers.
  2. What is the need of instrumentation amplifier in medical equipments?

  1. Draw a typical ‘PQRST’ complex waveform of ECG.

  1. List four types of surface electrodes.

  1. What is the frequency range of ECG, EEG and EMG waves?

  1. Mention various bioelectrical potential
  2. Define electrodes and mention its types

  1. Define all or nothing law

  1. What is electrode potential or half cell potential

  1. Define polarized and non polarized electrodes

  1. What is pre amplifier

  1. Define CMRR

  1. What are the function of chopper amplifier
  2. What are the basic components of bio-electric system

  1. What is the need of bio-amplifier?

  1. Draw pregelled disposable electrodes.

  1. What is ECG

  1. Draw the Einthoven triangle

  1. Draw ECG wave form
  2. What are the types of ECG lead system

  1. What is EEG

  1. What are the application of EEG

  1. What is EMG

  1. What is ERG

UNIT III

  1. Define Apnoea.

  1. What are the important parameters monitored in ICU?

  1. List the different methods used for direct measurement of blood pressure.

  1. What is the need for grounding in medical equipments?
  2. Why glass electrode is very much preferred as active electrode in a pH meter?

  1. Define cardiac output.

  1. What is the pH value of arterial blood and venous blood?

  1. What is auscultation

  1. What are the types of BP measurement
  2. What is cardiac output

  1. What is cardiac rate

  1. What are the type of heart sound

  1. Write the equation to find PH value

  1. Expand the term BSR and GSR

  1. What is the use of plethysmograph
  2. What the method of blood flow measurement

  1. What are two methods of pulse measurement

UNIT IV

  1. Differentiate T1 relaxation and T2 relaxation processes in MRI.
  2. State any two problems which arise due to leakage currents in an equipment.

  1. What is lithotripsy?

  1. What is the specific advantage of fluoroscopy over conventional X-ray imaging?
  2. What is meant by let-go current?

  1. Distinguish radiographic and fluoroscopic techniques.
  2. What is leakage current?

  1. How are X rays produced

  1. What is the application of X rays

  1. What is the principle of CT

  1. Compare radiography and fluoroscopy

  1. What is the application of CT
  2. What is ultrasonography

  1. Define NMR

  1. Define endoscope and mention some of its types

  1. Define thermograph

  1. Define electrical safety

  1. What are the types of thermography
  2. Draw the block diagram of biotelemetry

  1. Define macro shock

  1. Define micro shock

UNIT V

  1. Distinguish between defibrillator and pacemaker.

  1. What is the principle of haemodialysis?

  1. What is the use of biphasic DC defibrillator?

  1. What is the principle of bubble oxygenators?
  2. What is pacemaker

  1. What are types of pacing modes

  1. What is demand pacemaker

  1. What is fibrillation

  1. What are types of fibrillation

  1. What are the various electrodes used for defibrillation
  2. What is counter shock

  1. What is the need for ventilators?

  1. What is stimulator?

  1. What are the advantages of diathermy
  2. What is heart - lung machine?

  1. What is dialysis?
  2. What are the components of pacemaker?

  1. What are types of pacemaker?

  1. How are pulse generated in competitive pacemaker?

  1. What are the classifications of pacemaker based on the modes of operation?

  1. What are the advantage and disadvantage of standby pacemaker?
  2. What is audiometer?

PART – B

UNIT I

  1. Explain the function of human respiratory system.
  2. Explain the working of piezoelectric transducer as arterial pressure sensor..

  1. Explain how piezoelectric transducer produces ultrasonic waves.

  1. Analyze the physiology of heart and lungs and derive an approximate engineering system equivalent to the same.
  2. Show how an ultrasonic transducer is applied in clinical diagnostic circuit.

  1. Draw the structure of human cell and explain its constitutions.
  2. What are action and resting potential .explain

  1. Explain in detail central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

  1. How does blood circulate throughout the body
  2. Write a note on different types of transducer.

  1. With relevant graph explain the relationship between the action potential and resting potential.

  1. Explain in detail how pulsatile blood volume changes can be measured using photoelectric type resistive transducer.

  1. Draw the diagram and equivalent circuit of a differential capacitance pressure transducer and briefly explain its operation.
  2. With a neat diagram explain the operation of optical – fibre temperature sensors.

UNIT II

  1. Draw a buffer amplifier circuit and explain its working.

  1. Compare the characteristics of the micro, needle and surface electrodes.

  1. How a metal micro electrode is formed?  Draw its electrical equivalent circuit and explain.

  1. With a neat diagram explain the operation of pregelled disposable electrodes.
  2. With a neat block diagram show how EEG is recorded?

  1. Draw the circuit diagram of Darlington pair isolation amplifier and explain.

  1. What is the medical use of chopper amplifier? Draw the diagram of mechanical chopper and explain its working.

  1. Draw the ECG waves for normal adult, myocardial infraction, coronary insufficiency and ventricular fibrillation.
  2. Discuss the different types of electrodes

  1. Write a note on:

  1. ECG recorder

  1. EMG recorder
  2. ERG recorder

  1. EEG recorder

UNIT III

  1. What are known as “Korotkoff sound”? How will you measure them with an indirect method of measurement?

  1. Where do you use Clarke’s electrode?  Discuss the method used for measuring flow rate of O2  in
exhaust air. With suitable figures explain how pH, PCO2 and PO2 are measured?

3. Draw the block diagram of automated electro sphygmomanometer for blood pressure measurement and explain its operation.
  1. Explain with relevant equations the working and measurement procedure of Plethysmograph.
  2. Discuss in detail about Plethysmograph.

  1. What are the methods of measuring blood pressure? Explain.

  1. How pH value of blood is measured? Explain.
  2. Explain the measurement of flow rate of CO2  and O2  an exhaust air.
  3. How is heart sound measured? Explain.

UNIT IV

  1. Explain the working of X-ray machine.

  1. Explain the different elements involved in biotelemetry circuit.
  2. Explain about patient monitoring system.

  1. Bring out the clinical applications of endoscopy.

  1. What are the different medical application of thermograph

  1. Draw the block diagram of a CT scanner and explain its operation with emphasis on image reconstruction.
  2. What are the different modes of ultrasonic scanning with suitable diagrams
  3. Explain the importance of biotelemetry

  1. Draw a X-ray tube and explain its construction and working

10.  What  is  an  endoscope?  List  the  types  of  commonly  available  endoscopes.    With  schematic

diagram explain the working of endoscopic laser coagulator.
UNIT V

  1. With a neat diagram, describe the working of 1) heart – lung machine and 2) dialyzer.

  1. Explain any one type of pacemaker circuit and defibrillator circuit.

  1. List down the various types of pacemakers describing the working of any one of them.

  1. Write brief notes on the working principle of 1) nerve stimulators and 2) pure tone audiometers.

  1. Why do we require heart-lung machines
  2. Discuss the different modes of operation of cardiac pacemaker

  1. Explain the types of diathermy
  2. Write a note on audiometer

  1. Explain Lithotripsy.
  2. Draw the block diagram of synchronized DC defibrillator and explain its working.

  1. List the different types of waveforms used for stimulation of muscle and nerves. Draw the block diagram of a typical electro therapeutic stimulator and explain.


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