Software Engineering :
• The Application of systematic, disciplined, quantifier
• To the development, operations, and maintenance of software
2) What is a Process Framework?
Process Framework :
• Establishes foundation for a complete software process
• By identifying a small number of framework
activities that are applicable for all software
projects regardless of their size and complexity
3) What are the Generic Framework Activities?
Generic Framework Activities :
4) Define Stakeholder.
• Anyone who has stake in successful outcome of
• Business Managers, end-users, software engineer, support
5)How the Process Model differ from one another?
• Based on flow of activities
• Interdependencies between activities
• Manner of Quality Assurance
• Manner of Project Tracking • Team Organization and Roles
• Work Products identify an requirement identifier
6) Write out the reasons for the Failure of Water Fall
Reasons For The Failure Of Water Fall Model :
• Real Project rarely follow Sequential Flow. Iterations are
made in indirect manner
• Difficult for customer to state all requirements explicitly
• Customer needs more patients as working product reach only
at Deployment phase
7) What are the Drawbacks of RAD Model?
Drawbacks of RAD Model :
• Require sufficient number of Human Resources to create
enough number of teams
• Developers and Customers are not committed, system result in
• Not Properly Modularized building component may Problematic
• Not applicable when there is more possibility for Technical
8) Why Formal Methods are not widely used?
• Quite Time Consuming and Expensive
• Extensive expertise is needed for developers to apply formal
• Difficult to use as they are technically sophisticated
maintenance may become risk
9) What is Cross Cutting Concerns?
Cross Cutting Concerns :
• When concerns cut across multiple functions, features and
10) What are the different Phases of Unified Process?
Different Phases of Unified Process :
• Inception Phase
• Elaboration Phase
• Construction Phase
• Transition Phase
• Production Phase
11) Define the terms :
b) Agile Team a) Agility :-
• Dynamic, Content Specific, Aggressively Change
Embracing and Growth Oriented
b) Agile Team :-
• Fast Team
• Able to Respond to Changes
12) Define the terms:
a) Agile Methods
b) Agile Process
a)Agile Methods :-
• Methods to overcome perceive and actual weakness in
conventional software engineering
• To accommodate changes in environment, requirements and
b)Agile Process :-
• Focus on Team Structures, Team Communications, Rapid
Delivery of software and it de-emphasis importance of
13) What is the Use of Process Technology Tools?
Use of Process Technology Tools :
• Help Software Organizations
1. Analyze their current process
2. Organize work task
3. Control And Monitor Progress
4. Manage Technical Quality
14) Define the term Scripts.
• Specific Process Activities and other detailed work
functions that are part of team process
15) What is the Objective of the Project Planning Process?
Objective of the Project Planning Process :
• To provide framework that enables manager to make
reasonable estimates of resources, cost and schedule
16) What are the Decomposition Techniques?
Decomposition Techniques :
• Software Sizing
• Problem – Based Estimation
• Process – Based Estimation
• Estimation With Use – Cases
• Reconciling Estimates 17) How do we compute the “Expected Value” for Software
• Expected value for estimation variable(size), S, can be
compute as Weighted Average of Optimistic(Sopt),most
likely(Sm),and Pessimistic(Spess) estimates
• S = (Sopt+4Sm+Spess)/6
18) What is an Object Point?
Object Point :
• Count is determined by multiplying original number of
object instances by weighting factor and summing to obtain
total object point count
19) What is the difference between the “Known Risks” and Predictable
Known Risks :-
• That can be uncovered after careful evaluation of the
project plan, the business, and technical environment
in which the product is being developed
• Example : Unrealistic delivery rate
Predictable Risks :-
• Extrapolated from past project experience
• Example : Staff turnover
20) List out the basic principles of software project
Basic Principles Of Software Project Scheduling :-
• Time Allocation
• Effort Validation
• Defined Responsibilities
• Defined Outcomes
• Defined Milestones
21) What are the Classifications of System Engineering?
Classifications of System Engineering :
• Business Process Engineering[BPE]
• Product Engineering
22) List out the Elements in Computer-Based System?
Elements in Computer-Based System :
• Software • Hardware
23) What are the Factors to be considered in the System
24) What does a System Engineering Model accomplish?
• Define Processes that serve needs of view
• Represent behavior of process and assumption
• Explicitly define Exogenous and Endogenous Input
• Represent all Linkages that enable engineer to better
25) What Architectures are defined and developed as part of
• Data Architecture
• Applications Architecture
• Technology Architecture
26) What is meant by Cardinality and Modality ?
• The number of occurrence of one object related to the
number of occurrence of another object
• One to One [1 :1]
• One to Many [1 : N]
• Many to Many [M : N]
• Whether or not a particular Data Object must participate
in the relationship
27) What are the Objectives of Requirement Analysis ?
Objectives of Requirement Analysis :
• Describe what customer requires
• Establish a basis for creation of software design
• Define a set of requirements that can be validated once
the software design is built 28) What are the two additional feature of Hayley Pirbhai
• User Interface Processing
• Maintenance and Self test Processing
29) Define System Context Diagram[SCD]?
System Context Diagram[SCD] :
• Establish information boundary between System being
implemented and Environment which system operate
• Defines all external producers, external consumers and
entities that communicate through User Interface
30) Define System Flow Diagram[SFD]?
System Flow Diagram[SFD] :
• Indicates Information flow across SCD region
• Used to guide system engineer in developing system
31) What are the Requirements Engineering Process
32) What are the Difficulties in Elicitation?
Difficulties in Elicitation :
• Problem Of Scope
• Problem Of Understanding
• Problem Of Volatility
33) List out the Types of Traceability Table?
Types of Traceability Table :
• Features Traceability Table
• Source Traceability Table
• Dependency Traceability Table
• Subsystem Traceability Table
• Interface Traceability Table
34) Define Quality Function Deployment[QFD]?
Quality Function Deployment[QFD] :
• Technique translates needs of customer into technical
requirements • “Concentrates on maximizing customer satisfaction from
the software engineering process”
35) What are the Benefits of Analysis Pattern?
Benefits of Analysis Pattern :
• Seedup development of Analysis model
• Transformation of Analysis into Design model
36) What is System Modeling?
System Modeling :-
• Important Element in System Engineering Process
• Define Process in each view to be constructed
• Represent Behavior of the Process
• Explicitly define exogenous and endogenous inputs
37) Define CRC Modeling ?
CRC Modeling :-
• Class Responsibility Collaborator Modeling
• Collection of Standard Index Card .Divided into 3
1. Name of class at Top
2. List of class Responsibilities at Left
3. Collaborators at Right
• Classes that Cover the Information to complete its
38) List out the Factors of Data Modeling?
Factors of Data Modeling :
• Data Objects
• Data Attributes
• Cardinality and Modality
39) Define Swim Lane Diagram?
Swim Lane Diagram :
• Variation of activity diagram
• Allows Modular to represent floe of activities
• Actor responsible for activity
40) What are the Selection Characteristic for Classes?
Selection Characteristic for Classes :
• Retained Information
• Needed Services
• Multiple Attribute
• Common Attribute
• Common operations
• Essential Requirements 41) Define Steps in Behavioral Model.
Steps in Behavioral Model :
• Evaluate all Use Cases
• Identify Events
• Create Sequence for each use Cases
• Build a State Diagram
• Review Model for Accuracy and Consistency
41) Define the terms in Software Designing :
(a) Abstraction :
1. Highest Level : Solution is stated in broad term using
language of problem environment
2. Lower Level : More detailed description of solution is
(b) Modularity :
• Software is divided into separately named and
addressable components, called Modules that are
integrated to satisfy problem requirements
42) How the Architecture Design can be represented?
• Architectural Design can be represented by one or more
different models. They are,
1. Structural Models
2. Framework Models
3. Dynamic Models
4. Process Models
43) What is the Advantage of Information Hiding?
Advantage of Information Hiding :
• During testing and maintenance phase if changes
require that is done in particular module without
affecting other module
44) What types of Classes does the designer create?
• User interface Classes
• Business Domain Classes
• Process Classes
• Persistent Classes
• System Classes
45) What is Coupling? Coupling :-
• Quantitative measure of degree to which classes are
connected to one another
• Keep coupling as low as possible
46) What is Cohesion?
• Indication of relative functional strength of a module
• Natural extension of Information Hiding
• Performs a single task, requiring little integration
with other components
47) Define Refactoring.
• Changing software system in the way that does not alter
external behavior of code
48) What are the Five Types of Design classes?
Five Types of Design classes :
• User Interface Classes
• Business domain Classes
• Process Classes
• Persistent Classes
• System Classes
49) What are the Different types of Design Model? Explain.
Different types of Design Model :
• Process Dimension :
Indicate evolution of Design model as design tasks
executed as part of software process
• Abstraction Dimension :
Represent level of detail as each element of analysis
model is transformed into design equivalent
50) List out the Different elements of Design Model?
Different Elements of Design Model :
• Data Design Elements
• Architectural Design Elements
• Interface Design Elements
• Component Level Design Elements
• Deployment Level Design Elements
51) What are the Types of Interface Design Elements?
Types of Interface Design Elements :
• User Interfaces
• External Interfaces
• Internal Interfaces 52) What Types of Design Patterns are available for the
Types of Design Patterns :
• Architectural patterns
• Design Patterns
53) Define Framework.
• Code Skeleton that can fleshed out with specific classes
• Designed to address specifies problem at hand
54) What is the Objective of Architectural Design?
Objective of Architectural Design :
• Model overall software structure by representing
component interfaces, dependencies and relationships and
55) What are the important roles of Conventional component
within the Software Architecture?
• Control Component : that coordinates invocation of all
other problem domain
• Problem Domain Component : that implement Complete or
Partial function required by customer
• Infrastructure Component : that responsible for
functions that support processing required in problem
56) What are the Basic Design principles of Class-Based
Basic Design principles of Class-Based Components :
• Open-Closed Principle[OCP]
• Liskov Substitution Principle[LSP]
• Dependency Inversion Principle[DIP]
• Interface Segregation Principle[ISP]
• Release Reuse Equivalency Principle[REP]
• Common Closure Principle[CCP]
• Common Reuse Principle[CRP]
57)What should we consider when we name components?
• Dependencies and Inheritance
58) What are the Different Types of Cohesion?
Different Types of Cohesion : • Functional
59) What are the Different Types of Coupling?
Different Types of Coupling :
• Content Coupling
• Common Coupling
• Control Coupling
• Stamp Coupling
• Data Coupling
• Routine Call Coupling
• Type Use Coupling
• Inclusion or Import Coupling
• External Coupling
60) What is Program Design Language [PDL]?
Program Design Language [PDL] :
• Also called Structured English or Pseudocode
• Pidgin Language in that it uses the vocabulary of one
language and overall syntax of another
61) What are the Basic Principles of Software Testing?
Basic Principles of Software Testing :
• Traceable to Customer Requirements
• Planned long before Testing begins
• Pareto Principles applied to Software testing
• Begin small and progress towards testing
• Exhaustive testing is not possible
• Conducted by independent third party
62) List out the Characteristics of Testability of
Characteristics of Testability of Software :
• Stability • Understandability
63) List out various Methods for finding Cyclomatic
• Number of Regions
• Cyclomatic Complexity V(G) , for Flow Graph
V(G) = E – N + 2
• Cyclomatic Complexity V(G)
V(G) = P +1
64) Define Smoke Testing ?
Smoke Testing :
• Integration testing
• Commonly used when software products are being developed
65)What are the Attributes of Good Test?
Attributes of Good Test :
• High probability of finding errors
• Not Redundant
• “Best of Breed”
• Neither too Simple nor too complex
65) Define White Box Testing.
White Box Testing :
• Also called Glass Box Testing
• Test case design uses Control Structure of Procedural
Design to derive test cases
66) Define Basic Path Testing.
Basic Path Testing :
• White Box Testing
• Enable test case designer to derive a logical complexity
measure of a procedural design
• Use this measure as a Guide for defining a basis set of
67) Define the terms :
a) Graph Matrices
b) Connection Matrices
Graph Matrices :-
• To develop software tool the data structure used is
• Square Matrix
• Size equals number of nodes on the Flow graph
Connection Matrices :-
• If Link Weight =1 => Connection Exists
• If Link Weight =1 => Connection Does not Exists 68) What is Behavioral Testing?
Behavioral Testing :
• Also Known as Black Box Testing
• Focuses on Functional Requirement of software
• Enables Software engineer to derive set of input
condition that fully exercise all functional
requirements of a software
69) What are the Benefits of conducting Smoke Testing?
Benefits of conducting Smoke Testing :
• Integration Risk is Minimized
• Quality of end-product is improved
• Error diagnosis and Correction are simplified
• Progress is easy to assess
70) What errors are commonly found during Unit Testing?
• Misunderstood or incorrect arithmetic precedence
• Mixed Mode Operations
• Incorrect Initializations
• Precision Accuracy
• Incorrect Symbolic representation of expression
71) What problems may be encountered when Top-Down
Integration is chosen?
• Delay are test until stubs replace with actual modules
• Develop stubs that perform limited functions that
simulate the actual module
• Integrate the software from the bottom of the hierarchy
72) What are the Steps in Bottom-Up Integration?
Steps in Bottom-Up Integration :
• Low level components are combined into clusters perform
specific software sub function
• Driver is written to coordinate test case input and output
• Cluster is tested
• Drivers are removed and clusters are combined moving
inward in program structure
73) What is Regression Testing?
Regression Testing :
• Re-execution of some subset of tests that have already
• To ensure changes have not propagated unintended side
74) What are the Characteristics of “Critical Module”? Characteristics of “Critical Module” :
• Addresses several software requirements
• Has High Level Of Control
• Complex or error prone
• Has Definite Performance Requirements
75) What are the Properties of Connection Matrices?
Properties of Connection Matrices :
• Probability that link will execute
• Processing time expended during traversal of link
• Memory required during traversal of link
• Resource required during traversal of link
76) What is Flow Graph Notation?
Flow Graph Notation :-
• Simple notation for representing Control Flow
• Draw only when Logical Structure of component is complex
77) Define Cyclomatic Complexity?
Cyclomatic Complexity :-
• Software Metric
• Quantitative measure of Logical Complexity
• Number of Independent Paths in the basis set of
78)What is Equivalence Partition?
Equivalence Partitions :-
• Derives a input domain of a program into classes of data
from which test cases are derived
• Set Of Objects have link by relationships as Symmetric,
Transitive and Reflexive an equivalence class is present
79) List out the possible errors of Black Box Testing?
Errors of Black Box Testing :
• Incorrect or Missing Functions
• Interface Errors
• Errors in Data Structures or external databases
• Behavioral or Performance errors
• Initialization or Termination errors
80) Define Data Objects.
Data Objects :
• Represent Composite Information
• External entity, thin, occurrence or event, role,
organizational unit, place or structure
• Encapsulates Data only UNIT 5
81)What are the Components of the Cost of Quality?
Components of the Cost of Quality :
• Quality Costs
• Prevention Costs
• Appraisal Costs
82) What is Software Quality Control?
Software Quality Control :
• Involves series of inspections, reviews and tests
• Used throughout software process to ensure each work
product meets requirements placed upon it
83)What is Software Quality Assurance?
Software Quality Assurance :
• Set of auditing and reporting functions
• Assess effectiveness and completeness of quality control
84)What are the Objective of Formal Technical Reviews?
Objective of Formal Technical Reviews :
• Uncover errors in function, logic and implementation for
representation of software
• Software represented according to predefined standard
• Verify software under review meets requirements
• Achieve software developed in Uniform Manner
• Make projects more manageable
85)What Steps are required to perform Statistical SQA?
• Information about software defects is collected and
• Attempt is made trace each defect
• Using Pareto principle, isolate 20%
• Once vital causes are identified, correct problems that
86) Define SQA Plan.
SQA Plan :
• Provides roadmap for instituting SQA
• Plan serves as template for SQA activities that instituted
for each software project
87) What is Baseline criteria in SCM ?
• Help to control Change
• Specification or product that has been formally • Reviewed and agreed upon serves as basis for future
• That can be change only through formal change control
88) Define Status Reporting ?
• Also called Configuration Status Reporting
• Is a SCM task that answers
1. What Happened ?
2. Who did it ?
3. When did it happen ?
4. What else will be affected ?
89) What is the Origin of changes that are requested for
Origin Of Change :-
• New Business or Market Condition
• New Customer Needs
• Reorganization or business growth/downsizing
• Budgetary or Scheduling constraints
90) List out the Elements of SCM?
Elements of SCM :-
• Component Elements
• Process Elements
• Construction Elements
• Human Elements
91) What are the Features supported by SCM?
Features supported by SCM :
• Dependency tracking and change Management
• Requirements tracking
• Configuration Management
• Audit trails
92) What are the Objectives of SCM Process?
Objectives of SCM Process :
• Identify all items, collectively define software
• Manage changes to one or more these items
• Facilitate construction of different version of an
• Ensure that the software quality is maintained
93) What are the issues to be considered for developing
tactics for WebApp Configuration Management? • Context
94) Define CASE Tools.
CASE Tools :
• Computer Aided Software Engineering
• It is a System software
• Provide Automated support for software process activities
• Includes program used to support software process
• Such as Requirement Analysis, System Modeling, Debugging
95) How do we define Software Quality?
Software Quality :
• Conformance to explicitly stated functional and
performance requirements, explicitly documented
• Implicit characteristics, expected for professional
96) Define the terms :
a) Quality of Design
b) Quality of Conformance
Quality of Design :
• Characteristics, designer specify fro an item
Quality of Conformance :
• Degree to which design specifications are followed
97) What are the Type of CASE Tools?
Types of CASE Tools :-
• Upper CASE Tools
• Lower CASE Tools
98) Define Software Reliability?
Software Reliability :
• Probability of failure-free operation of computer program
in a specified environment for a specified time
99) How the Registration process of ISO 9000 certification
• Registration process of ISO 9000 certification has the
2. Pre-assessment 3. Document Review and Adequacy of audit
4. Compliance Audit
6. Continued Surveillance
100) What are the Factors of Software Quality?
Factors of Software Quality :
1. Define Software Engineering
The establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to obtain economically
software that is reliable and works efficiently on real machines.
2. Differentiate Software engineering methods, tools and procedures.
Methods: Broad array of tasks like project planning, cost estimation etc..
Tools: Automated or semi automated support for methods.
Procedures : Holds the methods and tools together. It enables the timely development of
3. Write the disadvantages of classic life cycle model.
Disadvantages of classic life cycle model :
(i) Real projects rarely follow sequential flow. Iteration always occurs and creates
(ii) Difficult for the customer to state all requirements
(iii) Working version of the program is not available. So the customer must have patience.
4. What do you mean by task set in spiral Model?
Each of the regions in the spiral model is populated by a set of work tasks called a task set that
are adopted to the characteristics of the project to be undertaken.
5. What is the main objective of Win-Win Spiral Model?
The customer and the developer enter into the process of negotiation where the customer may
be asked to balance functionality ,performance and other product against cost and time to market.
6. Which of the software engineering paradigms would be most effective? Why?
Incremental / Spiral model will be most effective.
(i) It combines linear sequential model with iterative nature of prototyping
(ii) Focuses on delivery of product at each increment
(iii)Can be planned to manage technical risks.
7. Who is called as the Stakeholder?
Stakeholder is anyone in the organization who has a direct business interest in the system
or product to be built.
8. Write the objective of project planning ?
It is to provide a framework that enables the manager to make reasonable estimates of
resources, cost and schedule.
9. What is Boot Strapping?
A sequence of instructions whose execution causes additional instructions to be loaded and
executed until the complete program is in storage. 10. Write a short note on 4GT.
Fourth Generation Technique. 4GT encompasses a broad array of software tools. Each tool
enables the software developer to specify some characteristics of software at a higher level.
11. What is FP ? How it is used for project estimation ?
Function Point. It is used as the estimation variable to size the each element of the software. It
requires considerably less detailed. Estimated indirectly by estimating te number of inputs,
outputs, data files, external interfaces.
12. What is LOC ? How it is used for project estimation?
LOC : Lines of Code. It is used as estimation variable to size each element of the software. It
requires considerable level of detail..
13. Write the formula to calculate the effort in persons-months used in Dynamic multi variable
Software Equation :E=[LOC * B
) Where E is effort in person-months, t is
project duration, B is special skills factor, P is productivity parameter.
14. What is called object points?
It is an indirect software measure that is computed using counts of te number of screens,
reports and components.
15. What are the four different Degrees of Rigor ?
Four different degrees of Rigor are
16. Write about Democratic Teams in software development. (Egoless Team)
It is egoless team. All team members participate in all decisions. Group leadership rotates
from member to member based on tasks to be performed.
17. What are the two project scheduling methods ?
PERT- Program Evaluation and Review Techniques
CPM- Critical Path Method
18. What is called support risk?
The degree of uncertainty that the resultant software will be easy to correct , adapt and
19. What is RMMM?
Risk Mitigation, Monitoring and Management Plan. It is also called Risk Aversion.
20. What are four impacts of the project risk?
Catastrophic, Critical, Marginal, Negligible.
21. List the tools or methods available for rapid prototyping.
Rapid prototyping (Speed)
(ii) Resuable software components
(iii) Formal specification and prototyping environments.
22. What is the need for modularity ?
Need for modularity: Easier to solve a complex problem. Can achieve reusability. Best effort
and complexity reduces.
23. What are the five criteria that are used in modularity?
Modular continuity Modular protection
24. What is Software Architecture?
The overall structure of the software and the ways in which that software provides conceptual
integrity for the system.
25. What are the models are used for Architectural design?
26. What is cohesion?
It is a measure of the relative functional strength of a module. (Binding)
27. What is Coupling?
Measure of the relative interdependence among modules.
(Measure of interconnection among modules in a software structure.)
28. List the coupling factors.
Interface complexity between modules
Reference to the module
Data pass across the interface.
29. Define Stamp coupling.
When a portion of the data structure is passed via the module interface , then it called
30. Define common coupling.
When a number of modules reference a global data area, then the coupling is called
31. Define temporal cohesion.
When a module contains tasks that are related by the fact that all must be executed with the
same span of time, then it termed as temporal cohesion.
32. Write a short note on structure charts.
These are used in architectural design to document hierarchical structure, parameters and
interconnections in a system. No Decision box . The chart can be augmented with module by
module specifications of I/P and O/P parameters as well as I/P and O/P attributes.
33. What do you mean by factoring?
It is also called vertical partitioning. It follows Top-Down strategy. We can say that there
are some top level modules and low level modules.
Top level modules ---- Control functions ,actual processing work
Low level modules ----Workers. Performing all input computation and
34. What is Aesthetics?
Aesthetics : It is a science of art and beauty. These are fundamental to software design,
whether in art or technology.
Simplicity, Elegance(refinement), clarity of purpose.
35. What do you mean by common coupling?
Common coupling : When a number of modules reference a global data area , then the
coupling is called common coupling.
36. Write about Real Time Systems.
It provides specified amount of computation with in fixed time intervals. RTS sense and
control external devices, respond to external events and share processing time between tasks.
37. Define Distributed system . It consists of a collection of nearly autonomous processors that communicate to achieve a
coherent computing system.
38. Compare Data Flow Oriented Design with data structure oriented design
Data flow oriented design : Used to represent a system or software at any level of
Data Structure oriented design : It is used for representing information hierarchy using the
three constructs for sequence, selection and repetition.
39. Define Architectural Design and Data Design.
Architectural Design : To develop a modular program structure and represent the relationships
Data Design : To select the logical representations of data objects , data storage and the
concepts of information hiding and data abstraction.
40. What are the contents of HIPO diagrams?
Visual table of contents, set of overview diagrams, set of detail diagrams.
41. What are the aspects of software reuse.
Software development with reuse
Software development for reuse
Generator based reuse
Application system reuse
42. Define Configuration Status Reporting .
What happened ? Who did it?
When it happened? What else will be affected?
It is also called status accounting.
43. What is the need for baseline?
Need for Baseline :
(i) Basis for further development
(ii) Uses formal change control procedure for change
(iii) Helps to control change
44. Define SCM.
It is an umbrella activity that is applied throughout software process. It has a set of tracking
and control activities that begin when a software engineering project begins and terminates
only when the software project is taken out of operation.
45. List the SCM Activities.
(i) Identify a change
(ii) Control change
(iii)Ensure that change is being properly implemented
(iv)Report changes to others who may have an interest
46. What is meant by software reusability?
A software component should be designed and implemented so that it can be reused in many
47. What is CASE ?
CASE : Computer Aided Software Engineering
CASE provides the engineer with the ability to automate manual activities and to improve engineering
48. Write the distinction between SCM and software support.
SCM : It has a set of tracking and control activities that begin when a software engineering
project begins and terminates only when the software project is taken out of operation.
Software support : It has a set of software engineering activities that occur after software has
been delivered to the customer and put into operation. 49. What is he difference between basic objects and aggregate objects used in software configuration.
Basic Objects : It represents unit of text. E.g Section of requirement specification, Source
listing for a component
Aggregate objects: Collection of basic objects. And other aggregate objects. E.g Full
50. What is configuration Audit?
Has the change specified in ECO been made?
Formal technical review been conducted?
Software Engineering procedures for noting the change, recording it, reporting it been
SCI is updated?
Essay Type Questions(in Brief)
51. Explain Linear Sequential Model and prototyping model in detail
Linear Sequential Model :
Explanation, Diagram , Advantages, Disadvantages
Explanation, Diagram , Advantages, Disdvantages
52. Explain Spiral model and win-win spiral model in detail. .
Spiral Model :
Six Task Regions : Customer Communication
Construction and Release
Diagram , Details of four circles
Win-Win spiral model:
The customer and the developer enter into the process of negotiation, where the
customer may be asked to balance functionality,performance, and other product against
cost and time to market.
Activities, diagram ,explanation
53. Explain incremental model in detail
Explanation of increments in the stages of
Analysis, Design, Code, Test.
54. Discuss about fourth generation techniques.
It encompasses a broad array of software tools. Each tool enables the software developer to
specify some characteristics of software at a higher level.
Explanations of : 4GT Tools
Current state of 4GT approaches 55. Explain the Activities of Project Planning
Software scope with an example (Conveyor Line Sorting System)
Hardware/ Software Tools
56. Explain the cost estimation procedure using COCOMO Model.
It is algorithmic cost model. (One of the Empirical estimation model)
COCOMO Model: 10 steps
3 different sizing options
57. Explain the following:
(i) Delphi Cost Estimation
(ii) Putnam Estimation model
(iii) Decomposition approach
(i) Delphi cost estimation
Procedures to calculate
(ii) Putnam estimation model (Dynamic multi variable model)
Explanation of the software equation
(iii) Decomposition approach
Write an algorithm
58. Explain the organizational structure of the software development.
Programming team structure
Management by objectives.
59. Explain the process of ‘ Risk Analysis and Management.’
Risk Management and Monitoring
60. Explain the following (i) Software requirement specification.
(ii) Specification Review
(i) Software Requirement Specification :
Bibliography and appendix
Preliminary user’s manual
(ii)Specification Review : Explanation
61. Explain the types of coupling and cohesion.
Coupling : Measure of the relative interdependence among modules.
Types: Data coupling , Stamp coupling, control coupling, External coupling,
Common coupling, Content coupling
Cohesion : It is a measure of the relative functional strength of a module.
Types: Coincidentally cohesive, Logically cohesive, Temporal cohesion,
procedureal cohesion, communicational cohesion, High cohesion, sequential cohesion. 62. Explain the various software design concepts
Explanations of Abstraction, Refinement, Modualrity, Software Architecture , Control
hierarchy, Structural partitioning, Data structure , Software procedure , Information hiding,
63. Explain Software Design Documentation in detail.
Design Documentation :
(Explanation of the following items and sub items )
File Structure and global data
Requirements Cross Reference
64. Discuss the design procedure for Real time and distributed system software.
Real Time and distributed system design :
Real Time systems : It must provide specified amounts of computation within fixed time intervals. (Explanation)
Distributed system : It consists of a collection of nearly autonomous processors that
communicate to achieve a coherent computing system.
65. Explain Jackson system development with an example.
Steps are : Entity Action step
Entity Structure step
Initial modeling step
System Timing step
Example : University with two campuses.
66. Explain Software Design Notations
Data Flow diagram , Structure charts, HIPO diagrams, procedure template, pseudocode,
structured flow chart, Structured English, Decision tables.
67. Explain Data Flow Oriented design in detail.
The objective of this design is to provide a systematic approach for the derivation of program structure.
Design and information flow
Design process considerations
(Atleast one of the following with an example)
Tranform flow and analysis
Transaction flow and analysis
68. Explain programming standards in detail
Explanation of all standards.
69. What is software reuse? Explain the various aspects of software reuse.
A software component should be designed and implemented so that it can be reused in many
Explanation of Aspects : Software development with reuse
Software development for reuse
Generator based reuse
Application system reuse
70. Describe the various software configuration management tasks in detail.
Brief explanations of
Software Configuration Items
Identification of objects
71. Write notes on Version Control and Change control
Version control : Description
Representations : (Evolution graph, Object Pool)
Change control : Description
Process of change control
72. What are CASE tools and their usage in Software Engineering ? Discuss each tool in brief.
Business process Engineering tools
Process modeling and management tools
Project planning tools
Risk Analysis tools
Project management tools
Requirements tracing tools
System software tools
Quality Assurance tools
Database management tools
Software configuration management tools
Analysis and design tools
Interface design and development tools
Web development tools
Integration and testing tools
Static Analysis tools
Dynamic analysis tools
Test management tools
Client/Server testing tools
73. Explain Integrated CASE Environment in detail.
Integrated CASE Environment
Benefits Integration Architecture
74. Explain CASE repository in detail
Features and content
Special features of CASE
75. Explain Building blocks for CASE