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Mobile and Pervasive Computing CS2402 CS 2402 two marks question with answers

Part A
1.Define SAMA.
Spread Aloha Multiple Access is a combination of CDMA and TDMA. The
CDMA better suits for connection oriented services only and not for connection less
bursty data traffic because it requires to program both sender and receiver to access
different users with different codes.
2.Define CDMA.
Code Division Multiple Access systems use codes with certain
characteristics to separate different users. To enable access to the shared medium without
interference. The users use the same frequency and time to transmit data. The main
problem is to find good codes and to separate this signal from noise. The good code can
be found the following 2 characteristic
3..What are the several versions in CSMA?
There are several versions in CSMA, they are as follows
a) non-persistent CSMA
b) p-persistent CSMA
c) 1-persistent CSMA
4.What is meant by non-persistent CSMA?
In, non-persistent CSMA, stations sense the carrier and start sending immediately
if the medium is idle., if the medium is busy, the station pauses a random amount of time
before sensing the medium again and repeating this pattern.
5.What is meant by p-persistent CSMA?
In p-persistent CSMA system nodes also sense the medium, but only transmit with a
probability of p. With the station deferring to the next slot with the probability 1-p,
i.e. access is slotted in addition.
6. What is SDMA?
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) is used for allocating separated spaces to users
in wireless networks. The basis for the SDMA algorithm is formed by cells and
sectorized antennas which constitute the infrastructure implementing space division
multiplexing (SDM)
7. What is FDD?
In FDMA, the base station and the mobile station establish a duplex channel. The two
directions, mobile station to base station and vice versa are separated using different
frequencies. This Scheme is called Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
What are the 2 sub layers in DLC?
Logical Link Control(LLC)
Media Access Control(MAC)
9) What is EY-NMPA?
Elimination yield –Non Pre-emptive Multiple Access (EY-NMPA) is a
scheme which uses several phases to sense the medium. access the medium
and for contention resolution.. Priority schemes can also be included.
This is actually used in HIPERLAN1 specification.
10) What do you mean by Polling?
Polling is a strictly centralized scheme with one master and several
slave stations. The master can collect the list of stations during the
contention phase and can poll these slaves according to many schemes
like round robin, random access, reservation scheme etc.
11) What are the four types of handover available in GSM?
1.Intra cell Handover
2.Inter cell Intra BSC Handover
3.Inter BSC Intra MSC handover
4.Inter MSC Handover
12) What is TETRA?
TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) systems use different radio carrier frequencies, but
they assign a specific carrier frequencies for a short period of time according to demand.
TETRA’s are highly reliable and extremely cheap.
13) what are the categories of Mobile services?
• Bearer services
• Tele services
• Supplementary services
14)What are the services provided by supplementary services?
• User identification
• Call redirection
• Call forwarding
• Closed user groups
• Multiparty Communication
15) What are types of Handover?
Intra-cell handover
Inter-cell ,intra- BSC handover
Inter-BSC, intra-MSC handover
Inter MSC handover
16.What is meant by GPRS?
The General Packet Radio Service provides packet mode transfer for applications
that exhibit traffic patterns such as frequent transmission of small volumes.
17)What are subsystems in GSM system?
• Radio subsystem(RSS)
• Network & Switching subsystem(NSS)
• Operation subsystem(OSS)
18)What are the information in SIM?
• card type, serial no, list of subscribed services
• Personal Identity Number(PIN)
• Pin Unlocking Key(PUK)
• An Authentication Key(KI)
19)Define Normal Burst?
The frame used for normal data transmission within a time slot is called Normal
20)What are the logical channels in GSM?
• Traffic channel(TCH)
• Control channel(CCH)
23) What is the function of Medium Access Control Layer?
The functions of Medium Access Control Layer is responsible for establishes,
maintains, and releases channels for higher layers by activating and deactivating physical
24) What is meant by GEO?
GEO means Geostationary or Geosynchronous earth orbit. GEO satellites have a
distance of almost 36000 km to the earth. Examples are almost all TV and radio
broadcast satellites, many weather satellites and satellites operating as backbone for the
telephone network.
25) what are the advantages of GEO?
Three GEO satellites are enough for a complete coverage of almost any spot on
earth, senders and receivers can use fixed antennas positions, no adjusting is needed.
Therefore GEO’s are ideal for T.V and radio broadcasting
26)What is Handover?
The satellite is the base station in satellite communication systems and that
it self is moving. So, additional instance of handover are necessary due to the movement
of the satellite
1.Intra Satellite handover:
2.Inter Satellite handover.
3.Gateway handover.
4.Inter System handover.
27) What are the registers maintained by the gateway of satellite?
1.Home Location Register(HLR).
2.Visitor Location Register(VLR).
3.Satellite User Mapping Register(SUMR).
28)Advantages of MEO
Using Orbits around 10,000Km, the system only requires a dozen satellites
which is more than the GEO system, but much less than a LEO system. Further more
these satellites move slower relative to the earth’s rotation allowing a simpler system
Depending on the inclination a MEO can cover larger populations, thus requiring less
29) Applications of Satellite ?
Satellites can be used in the Following Areas
• Weather Forecasting
• Radio and TV broadcast Satellites
• Military Satellites
• Satellites for Navigation
What are the applications in satellites?
• Weather forecasting satellites
• Radio & TV broadcast satellites
• Military satellites
• Satellites for navigation
• Mobile communication
31) What are the advantages of LEO?
• Data rate is 2400 bit/s
• Packet delay is relatively low
• Smaller footprints of LEO allows frequency reuse
• Provide high elevations
32) Define the inclination angle and perigee.
The inclination angle is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the plane
described by the satellite orbit. An inclination angle of 0 degrees means that the satellite
is exactly above the equator. If the satellite does not have a circular orbit, the closest
point to
the earth is called the perigee.
33) Define the elevation angle and footprint.
The elevation angle is defined as the angle between the centre of satellite beam and
plane tangential to the earth’s surface. The foot-print can be defined as the area on earth
the signals of the satellite can be received.
34) Define Header core.
Seven bytes field contains the sizes of the header and the body, the content type
of the object. Depending on this header information, the receiver may decide if it has
enough resources(memory, cpu, power, display etc) available to decode and further
the object.
35) What is MSC?
Main Service Channel(MSC) carries all user data.
eg. audio, multimedia data.
36) What is FIC?
The Fast Information Channel(FIC) contains Fast Information Block(FIB) with
256bits each(16 bit checksum). An FIC carries all control information which is
required for interpreting the configuration and content of the MSC.
37) What are the different types of disk?
• A flat disks
• Skewed disks
• Multi disks
38) What are the goals of DVB?
The goal of DVB is to introduce digital TV broadcasting
using satellite transmission (DVB-5) cable technology (DVB-c)
and terrestrial transmission (DVB-7).
39) Name some of the formats supported by MOT?.
Multimedia and Hypermedia information coding experts group(MHEG)
Join photograph’s experts group(JPEG)
American standard code for information interchange(ASCII)
Moving pictures expert group(MPEG)
Hypertext markup language(HTML)
Hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP)
Graphics interchange format(GIF)
40) Give structure MOT object.
variable size
variable size
Header core
Header Extension Body
Header core : contain the size of the header and body and the content type of the object.
Header Extension : contains additional object handling data such as repetition distance to
support caching, segmentation information and priority of the data.
Body : contains arbitrary data to be transmitted.
41)What are different interleaving and repetition schemes applied by DAB to objects and
1.Object Repetition.
2.Interleaved Objects.
3.Segment repetition.
4.Header repetition.
42) What are the advantages of DAB?
1.DAB can offer sound in CD like quality.
2.DAB can use single frequency network where all senders transmitting the same
radio program can operate at the same frequency.
3.DAB use VHF and UHF frequency bands.
4.DAB uses DQPSK modulation scheme.
5.DAB user COFDM and FEC.
6.DAB can transmit up to six stereo audio programmes with a data rate of
192kbit/s each.
43) What is object repetition?
DAB can repeat objects several times. If an object A consists of four
What is EIT?
Event Information Table(EIT) contains status information about the current
transmission and some additional information for set-top boxes.
45) What are the service information sent by DVB?
Digital Video Broadcast Containers are basically MPEG-2 frames. DVB
sends service information. These information are,
1.Network information table(NIT).
2.Service Description Table(SDT).
3.Event Information Table(EIT).
4.Time and Date Table(TDT)
46) What are the advantages of DVB?
1.Data rates planned for users are 6-38mbit/s for the downlink and 33-100kbit/s for
the uplink.
2.Transmitted along with TV programmes and doesn’t require additional lines or
hardware per customer.
3.Can be used in remote areas and developing countries where there is no high band
width wired network.
47) what is meant by beacon?
A beacon contains a timestamp and other management information used for
power management and roaming.
e.g., identification of the base station subsystem(BSS)
48) What is Active scanning?
Active scanning comprises sending a probe on each channel and waiting for
response. Beacon and Probe response contain the information necessary to join the new
49) What is Passive Scanning?
Passive Scanning Simply means listening into the medium to find other networks,
i.e. receiving the beacon of another network issued by the synchronization function
within an access point
50) what is the primary goal of IEE 802.11?
The primary goal of the standard was the specification of a simple, robust, WLAN
which offers time bounded and asynchronous services also it should be able to operate
with multiple physical layers.
51) what is meant by SIFS?
SIFS means Short Inter Frame Spacing. The shortest waiting time defined for
short control message such as acknowledgements or polling response.
52) What are Advantages of wireless LAN?
Quality Service,
Proprietary Solution,
Safety and Security
53) What are Design Goals of Wireless LAN?
Global Operation
Low Power
License-free Operation
Robust transmission technology
Simplified spontaneous co-operation
Easy to use
protection of investment
Safety and Security
Transparency for application
54)What are the three Low Power States provided by Bluetooth?
PARK state
HOLD state
SNIFF state
55)What is SCO?
SCO-stands for Synchronous Connection Oriented Link
Standard telephone (voice) connection require symmetrical, circuit-switched, point-topoint
For this type of link, the master reserves two consecutive slots at fixed intervals.
56)What are the three phases in EY-NPMA?
i. Prioritization: Determine the highest priority of a data packet ready to be sent on
competing nodes.
ii. Contention: Eliminate all but one of the contenders, if more than one sender has
the highest current priority.
iii. Transmission: Finally, transmit the packet of the remaining node.
57)What are Advantages and Disadvantages of Infrared?
i. Simple and extremely cheap senders and receivers which integrated in almost all
mobile devices
ii. No licenses are needed for infrared technology and shielding is very simple.
iii. Electrical devices do not interfere with infrared transmission.
i. Low bandwidth
ii. Quite easily shielded
iii. Cannot Penetrate
58) What are the system integration functions of MAC management?
• Synchronization
• Power management
• Roaming
• Management information base (MIB)
59) What do you meant by roaming?.
Moving between access point is called roaming. Even wireless networks may require
more than one access point to cover all rooms. In order to provide uninterrupted service,
we require roaming when the user moves from one access point to another.
60) What is mobile routing?
Even if the location of a terminal is known to the system, it still has to route the
traffic through the network to the access point currently responsible for the wireless
Each time a user moves to a new access point, the system must reroute traffic. This is
known as mobile routing.
61) What are the functions which support service and connection control?
>Access point control function
>Call control and connection control function
>Network security agent
>Service control function
>Mobility management function
62) What are the examples for service scenarios identified in WATM ?
>Office environments
>Universities, schools, training, centres
>Networked vehicles
63) What is BRAN?
The broadband radio access networks(BRAN) which have been standardized by
European Telecommunications Standard Institute(ETSI) are a possible choice for an RAL
for WATM. Although BRAN has been standardized independently from WATM, there is
co-operation between the two to concentrate the common efforts on one goal. The main
motivation behind BRAN is the deregulation and privatization of the telecommunication
sector in Europe.
64) What are the different network types of BRAN?
>Hyper access
65) What is the main problem for WATM during handover?
The main problem for WATM during the handover is rerouting of all connections
and maintaining connection quality.
66) What are the different segments in ATM end-to-end connection?
An ATM end-to-end connection is separated into different segments.
>A fixed segment is a part of the connection that is not affected by the handover
>Handover segment is affected by the handover and is located completely within a
handover domain.
67) What is anchor point? .
The Anchor point is the boundary between a handover segment and a fixed
68) What are different types of handover?
>Hard handover
>Terminal initiated
>Network initiated
>Network initiated, terminal assisted
>Network controlled
>Backward handover
>Forward handover
69) What is mobile terminal and wireless terminal?.
Mobile terminal is a standard ATM terminal with the additional capability of
reconnecting after access point change. the terminal can be moved between different
access point within a certain domain.
Wireless terminal is accessed via a wireless link, but the terminal itself is fixed,
i.e., the terminal keeps its access point to the network.
70) What is generic routing encapsulation?
Generic routing encapsulation (GRE) is an encapsulation scheme which supports other
network protocols in addition to IP. It allows the encapsulation of packets of one protocol
suite into the payload portion of a packet of another protocol suite.
71) Define COA.
The COA (care of address) defines the current location of the MN from an IP point of
view. All IP packets sent to the MN are delivered to the COA, not directly to the IP
address of the MN. Packet delivery toward the MN is done using the tunnel.
72) What is meant by Transparency?
Mobility should remain invisible for many higher layer Protocols and applications. The
only affects of mobility should be a higher delay and lower bandwidth which are natural
in the case of mobile networks.
73) What is Generic Routing encapsulation?
Generic Routing encapsulation (GRE) allows the encapsulation of packets of one
protocol suite into the payload portion of a packet of another protocol suit.
74)What is Binding Request?
Any node that wants to know the current location of an MN can send a binding request to
the HA. The HA can check if the MN has allowed dissemination of its current location.
75) What are the possibilities for the location of care-of-address (COA)?
The two possibilities for the location of care-of-address are:
i.Foreign agent COA
ii.Co-related COA
76) What are the requirements for the development of mobile IP standard?
The requirements are:
c.Scalability and efficiency
77) What is COA?
Care Of Address (COA) define the current location of the MN (Mobile Node) from an IP
point of view. DHCP is a good candidate for supporting the acquisition of Care Of
78) What is Dynamic source Routing?
Dynamic Source Routing eliminates all periodic routing updates. If a node needs to
discover a route, it broadcast a route request with a unique identifier and the destination
address as parameters. Any node that receivers a route request gives a list of addresses
representing a possible path on its way toward the destination.
79) Why is need of routing?
Routing is to find the path between source and destination and to forward the packets
80) Define Mobile node:
Mobile node:
A mobile node is an end-system or router that can change its point of
attachment to the
Internet using mobile IP. The MN keeps its IP address and can continuously with any
other system in the Internet as long as link layer connectivity is given.
81) What is Encapsulation and Decapsulation?
Encapsulation is the mechanism of taking a packet consisting of
packet header and data and
putting it into the data part of a new packet.
The reverse operation, taking a packet out of the data part of
another packet,is called decapsulation.
82) what are the two functions of the transport layer in the internet?
The two functions of the transport layer in the internet are check summing over user
data and multiplexing/ demultiplexing of data from applications.
83) what is called the exponential growth of the congestion window?
The sendor always calculate congestion window for a window start size of the
congestion window is one segment. Sender sends one packet and waits for
acknowledgement. If acknowledgement arise it raises the level of congestion window by
one. If sender sends two packet if acknowledgement arrises it raises the level of
congestion window by two. This scheme raises the level of congestion window every
time the acknowledges come back, which takes roundtrip time(RTT).This is called the
exponential growth of the congestion window?
84) Advantages of I-TCP:
•I-TCP does not require any changes in the TCP protocol as used by the
hosts in the fixed network or other hosts in a wireless network that do not use
this optimization.
•Without partitioning retransmission of lost packets would take place
between mobile host and correspondent host across the whole network.
•Optimization of new mechanisms is quite simple to be done in I-TCP as
they only cover a single hop.
•The short delay between the mobile host and foreign agent can be
determined and is independent of other traffic streams. Therefore an
optimized TCP can use precise time-outs to guarantee retransmission as fast
as possible.
•Partitioning into two connections also allows the use of a different
transport layer protocol between the foreign agent and the mobile host or the
use of compressed headers etc. The foreign agent can act as a gateway to
translate between different protocols.
.85) Disadvantages of I-TCP:
• The loss of the end to end semantics of TCP cause problems if the foreign
agent portioning the TCP connection crashes.
• An increased handover latency is more problematic in practical use
• The foreign agent must be a trusted entity because the TCP connections end
at this point.
86) Define Slow Start?
TCP’s reaction to a missing acknowledgement is quite
drastic, but necessary to get rid of congestion. The
behaviour TCP shows after the detection of congestion
is called Slow start.
87) How does data transmission takes place?
Data transmission takes place using network adapters, fibre optics, copper wires,
special hardware for routers etc.
88) What is mean by Slow Start?
TCP’s reaction to a missing acknowledgement is quite drastic, but necessary to get rid
of congestion fast
enough. The behaviour TCP shows after the detection of cogestion is called slowstart.
89) What is mean by SCPS-TP?
The set of protocols developed for space communication is known as space
communications protocol standards(SCPS),
the extended TCP is called SCPS-transport protocols.(SCPS-TP).
90) What are Advantage and Disadvantage of MobileTCP?
i. M-TCP maintains the TCP end-to-end semantice. The SH does not send any ACK
itself but forwards the ACKs from the MH.
ii.If the MH is disconnected, M_TCP avoids useless retransmissions, slow starts or
breaking connections by simply shrinking the sender’s window to 0;
iii. Since M-TCP does not buffer data in the SH as I-TCP does, it is not necessary to
forward buffers to a new SH.
Lost packets will be automatically retransmitted to the new SH.
i. As the SH does not act as proxy as in I-TCP, packet loss on the wireless link due to
bit errors is propagated to the sender.
M-TCP assumes low bit error rates, which is not always a valid assumption.
ii. A modified TCP on the wireless link not only requires modification to the MH
protocol software but also new network elements like the
bandwidth manager.
91) What is Fast retransmit?
In TCP, a receiver sends acknowledgements only if it receive any packets from the
sender. Thus receiving acknowledgements from a
receiver shows additionally that the receiver continuously receives something from
the sender. Therefore, the gap in the packet stream is not
due to severe congestion, but a simple packet loss due to a transmission error. The
sender can now retransmit the missing packets before
the timer expires. This behaviour is called fast retransmit.
92) What is fast retransmit?
The gap in the packet stream is not due to severe congestion, but a simple packet
loss due to a transmission error. The sender can now retransmit the missing packet before
the timer expires. This behavior is called fast retransmit.
93) What is fast recovery?
The receipt of acknowledgement shows that there is no congestion justifying a
slow start. The sender can continue with the current congestion window. The sender
performs a fast recovery from the packet loss. This mechanism can improve the
efficiency of TCP dramatically.
94)What is HTTP?
The Hypertext transfer protocol is a stateless, lightweight, application level
protocol for data transfer between servers and clients. An HTTP transaction consists of an
HTTP request issued by a client and an HTTP response from the server. Stateless means
that all HTTP transactions independent of each other.
95)What is image scaling?
If a page contains a true color, high-resolution picture, this picture can be scaled
down to fewer colors, lower resolution, or finally to only the title of the picture. The user
can decide to download the picture separately. Further one can offer clipping, zooming,
or detail studies to users if they are interested in a part of the picture.
96) What is WAP?
Wireless application protocol(WAP) is a common effort of many companies and
organizations to set up a framework for wireless and mobile web access using many
different transport systems. Eg. GSM, GPRS, UMTS.
97) What is WMLBrowser?
WMLBrowser is a library that provides several functions typical for a browser,
such as prev to go back one card or refresh to update the context of the user interface.
98) Define Damping
Transient changes in topology that are short duration should not distablize the
routing mechanism.Advertisements containing changes in topology currently stored are
therefore not disseminated further.A node waits with dissemination if these changes
aremost likely not yet stable.Waitingg time depends on the time between the first and the
best announcement.
99) Define Dynamic source routing.
In an adhoc networks where nodes exchanges packets from time to time.
Dynamic Source routing divides the task of routing into two separate problem
i)Routing Recovery:A node only tries to discover a route to destination if it has to
send something to this destination and there is currently no known route
ii).Route Maintenance:If a nodeis continuously sending packets via route,it has to
make sure that the route is held urgent.As soon as a node detects pbm with the current
route it has ti find an alternative node.
100) Define WAP
WAP is Wireless Application Protocol.It is the basic Objetive of the WAP forum
are to bring diverse Internet content and others data service to digital cellular phones and
other wireless,mobile terminals.Moreever a protocol suite should enable global wirless
communication across different wireless network technologies.All WAP forum solution
must be:interoperable,scaleable,efficient,reliable.
Part - B
1. Explain different TDMA schemes in detail.
Fixed TDMA, Classical TDMA, Slotted TDMA, Carrier sense multiple access,
Demand assigned multiple access, PRMA Packet reservation multiple access,
Reservation multiple access, Reservation TDMA, Multiple access with collision
avoidance, Polling, Inhibit sense multiple access.
2. Write notes on DECT and TETRA
System architecture, Protocol Architecture
3. Write notes on UMTS and IMT – 2000
UMTS basic architecture, UTRA FDD mode, UTRA TDD mode
4. Account on CDMA Scheme.
Good code, Orthogonal, Autocorrelation, Spread aloha multiple access.
5. Explain broadcast systems in detail.
Overview – Cyclical repetition of data – Digital audio broadcasting –
Multimedia object transfer protocol – Digital video broadcasting.
6. Explain satellite systems in detail.
History – Applications – Basics – GEO – LEO – MEO – Routing –
Localization – Handover – Examples.
7. Explain GSM systems in detail.
Mobile services- System Architecture – Radio interface – Protocols –
Localization and calling – Handover – Security - New data services – HSCSD –
8. Explain IEEE802.11 standard for WLANS in detail.
System architecture – Protocol architecture – Physical layer – Frequency hopping
spread spectrum, Direct spectrum spread spectrum, Infrared – Medium access control
layer- Basic DFWMAC-DCF using CSMA/CA, DFWMAC-DCF with RTS/CTS
extension, DFWMAC-PCF with polling, MC frames – MAC management –
Synchronization, Power management, Roaming – 802.11b.
9. Write notes on WATM services and Functions.
Wireless mobile terminal side functions and mobility supporting network side
10. Write notes on WATM handover.
Handover reference model, handover requirements, types of handover, hand
over scenarios, backward handover, and forward handover.
11. Write notes on location management, addressing and access point control
Requirements for location management , procedures and entities
12. Explain mobile IP in detail.
Goals, assumptions and requirements – Entities and terminology – IP
packet delivery – Agent discovery – Agent advertisement, Agent solicitation –
Registration – Tunneling and encapsulation- IP-in-IP encapsulation, minimal
encapsulation, generic routing encapsulation –optimizations – Reverse tunneling –
13. Give a detailed account of mobile ad-hoc networks.
Instant infrastructure, Disaster relief Remote areas Effectiveness – Routing –
Asymmetric links, redundant links, interference, dynamic topology - Destination
sequence distance vector – sequence numbers, damping - Dynamic source routing –
route discovery, route maintenance - Alternative metrics – least interference
14. Give a detail note on HYPERLAN.
Reference model and configurations- Physical layer –Data link control
layer – broadcast phase, downlink phase, uplink phase, random access phasebroascast
channel, frame channel, access feedback channel, long transport
channel, short transport channel, random channel – Convergence layer – Ethernet,
IEEE 1394 (Firewire), ATM.
15. Account on BLUETOOTH in detail.
User scenarios- Connection of peripheral devices, support of ad-hoc
networking, bridging of networks – Architecture – networking, protocol stackradio
layer – Baseband layer- physical links- synchronous connection-oriented
link, Asynchronous connectionless link – link manager protocol –L2CAP –
Security –SDP – Profiles –IEEE802.15 .
16. Write notes on traditional TCP.
Congestion control, slow start, fast retransmit/ fast recovery, implications
on mobility.
17. Write notes on wireless TCP.
Indirect TCP, snooping TCP, Mobile TCP, Fast retransmit/fast recovery,
transmission/time-out freezing, selective retransmission, transaction oriented TCP.
18. Write notes on WDP and WTLS.
Figure and explanation about WDP and WTLS.
19. Write notes on wireless transaction protocol..
Figure and explanation about WTP class 0, class 1 and class 2.
20. Write notes on wireless sessions protocol.
WSP/B over WTP and WSP/ B as connectionless session service
21.Explain the various applications of mobile computing:
Various applications and explanation
22.Write notes on UMTS and IMT 2000
Architecture-Frame formats and explanation
23.Explain the various satellite orbit and the parameters associated
Parameters of satellites and explanations-Three orbits and explanation
24.Explain mobile IP in detail
Architecture-various techniques-explanation
25.Explain Traditional TCP
Architecture-Types- Frame formats-Explanation


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