16. What is SMIL and its uses?
  SMIL is the acronym of Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language.
  It can be used to define instructions for the creation of web based 
     interactive multimedia presentations.
  SMIL can be used to describe,
     * Multimedia presentations.
     * Adding hyperlinks to video objects.
     * Layout of screen presentation.

17. What are the advantages of SMIL?
     * Faster and easier development.
     * Supported in IE5.5,real player, windows media player and ADOBE1.5 SVG plug-in.
     * Not necessary to enable JavaScript in the browser.
     * Faster animation than flash.

18. List out the SMIL elements?
SMIL provides elements to draw graphics and also to coordinate them over time.
SMIL uses time, line, and it can be used to schedule running of different complex 
         Multimedia objects.
 The different timeline elements are,
       * Seq :- For  animations that run one after the another.        
       * Par :- For animations that all run at the same time.
       * Excl :- For exclusive elements that animation which pause all other timeless when
they run.

19. What are the three basic security requirements for e-business and explain?
 The three basic security requirements are,
        * Confidentiality
        * Authentication
        * Data Integrity
      1. Confidentiality - Ensuring the information is not made available or  disclosed to
          Individuals, entities or processes. Someone eavesdropping on a conversation  or tapping into a Data stream should not be able to understand the communication.
      2. Authentication - Closely associated with authentication is non repudiation.
          For a business transaction to be valid, neither party should later be  able to deny
      3. Data Integrity - Ensuring that when information arrives at its destination it hasn't
been tampered 
          with or altered in transit from its original form, either accidentally or deliberately.
21. What is data integrity?
 Ensuring that information arriving the destination has not been tempter with or altered   form is original form either accidentally or purposely.    

22. Guidelines for Signing XML Documents?
XML relies on substitution and transformation
  Content of external style sheet should be signed if its referred
        The information that was presented must be signed
        Transformations may alter content, so the transformed data should be signed
        The security of overall system depends on the security and integrity of procedures and
personnel as well as well as procedural enforcement

23. What are the steps included during the creation of a core canonical form?
• Encoding the document in the Universal Character Set UTF_8
• Normalizing line breaks before parsing
• Replacing character and parsed entity References
• Converting  Empty Element to start-end tag pairs

 24. What is the XML security framework?

    W3c is driving three xml security technologies:
 -XML Digital Signature
 -XML Encryption
 -XML Key Management Services

16 –marks
1.Roles and Advantages of XML
• Xml is a metalanguage defined by w3c.
• Xml is a set of rules and guidelines for describing structured data.
• Xml goes beyond its technical specification.
• Xml has been the driving force behind other standards and vocabularies.
• Xml is a specification for defining new markup language.
• Xml give rise to vertical industry vocabularies in support of B2B e-commerce.
• Horizontal vocabularies provide service to wide range of industries.
• Xml influence has been felt in three waves,from industry specific vocabularies to
horizontal industry applications to protocol.
• Xml has enabled industry vocabularies and protocol.
Advantages: • Xml files are human-readable.It was designed as text.
• Widespread industry support exists for Xml.Tools and utilities are provided with
web browser,database,operating system.
• Major relational databases have the capability to read and generate Xml data.
• Xml support the interpretation and transformation of Xml data for webpage display
and report.
• Xml must be compatible with XGML.
• Xml design must be formal and concise.
2.Explain briefly XML:The Three Revolutions
   The three revolutions are,
1. Data Revolution
2. Architecture Revolution
3. Software Revolution
   Data Revolution:
   *Understood how data was formatted and how process it
                 *Provide alternatives to specialize EDI
                 * XML enables the creation of program independent data formats
                 *Explain about XML: Origin and Cultures  
  -XML’s origin arein SGML
  -XML has emerged from a document culture
  -XML opens up options for treating code as data
   Architectural Revolution:
   The XML technologies provide way to move from tightly coupled system based
on existing established infra structures such as CORBA,RMI and DCOM to loosely
coupled system which can work on the standard TCP/IP protocol.
Software Revolution:
   XML helps to build software in this revolutionary way.The new idea is to create
building blocks that can be used in combination with other building block that are existing
or yet to be created.
3.Explain WebServices.
 Webservices is both a process and set of protocols for finding and connecting to
Software exposed as services over the Web.
 Webservices builds on a SOAP foundation & facilitates software interaction.
Webservices Architecture:
A service provider -- interface for software that can carry out a specified set of tasks.
A service requester--discovers and invokes a software service to give business solution.
A service provider—manages & publishes the service.
Key Technologies.
• UDDI-Universal Description, Discovery and integration.
- A protocol for describing web services components.
- UDDI allows businesses to register with an Internet directory so they can advertise
their services and companies can find each other and carry out transactions over the web.
• WSDL – Web services  Description language.
- An XML description of both the service interface & the implementation details of
how to connect to and use a particular Webservice.
• SOAP-Simple Object access protocol.
-An XML based protocol for exchanging information in a decentralized & distributed
environment. -SOAP is a protocol for communicating with a UDDI service.
Web Services Risks:
  1.Maturity  2. Security 3.Transactions 4.Configuration Management.
- ebxml adds process to e-business interaction.
- UN/CEFACT & OASIS are key players behind ebXML.
ebXML Technologies:
               The Technical architecture consists of  1.Messaging 2.Business processes Partner profiles and agreements 4.Registries & repositories 5.Core components. 
4.Explain XML & DTD.
   A DTD is used to define the structure of an XML document.A DTD may be used by
both sender and receiver of XML.Senders used to create Xml.Receiver used to compare the
received document against the dtd. A dtd can be declared in two ways.
i. Internal DTD
ii. External DTD
Internal DTD:

 The DTD can be declared within the Xml document.The syntax for using internal
dtd is
Example for internal dtd.
External DTD:
 The dtd can be declared as an external interface.It may be an external to an Xml
source document.The syntax for using external dtd is
Example for external dtd.
Defining attributes in dtd:
 The syntax for specifying attributes in dtd is,
Example for defining attributes.
Possible attributes type:
 Explain the possible values with their explanation.Some of the values are
Default attribute values:
 Specifying the default attribute value means if the user does not assign any value to
the attribute then a default value will be assigned.Explain the possible default values with
their explanation.The default values are
5.XML Language Basic
XML stands for "Extensible Markup language " a language developed by world wide web
consortium(W3C). It is defined as meta language because it is used to define other
languages through use of markup tags, which add structure and meaning to documents.
XML Fundamentals
-  Elements are the primary means for describing data in XML
-  Elements used in three ways:
-  Simple Content
-  Element as container for other Elements
-  Empty Element as container for Attributes
Element Naming Rule - Names can contain letters, and characters.
- Names must not begin with a number or punctuation.
- Names must not start with the string "xml" in any upper or lower case form.
- Names must not contain spaces.
 It provides additional information about the elements.
Element Versus Attributes
 Reason for not using attributes:
 Entities are used to substitute one string for another in an XML document.
Types of Entities:
- Predefined Entities
- Parameter Entities
When an XML data is parsed, all the XML is processed except the data inside the CDATA
Unit – II
1. Explain briefly xml Transformation?
 Xml is supported by several technologies that allow xml to be manipulated and                  
modifies in various ways. These technologies include XSLT, XLink, XPath, and XQuery.
 XSLT: XSLT is used to transform an xml document. XSLT uses templates and
rules. The transformation language XSLT may be used to Transform xml into a variety of
formats(fig2.15).XSLT and css may complement each other.
 XLink: XLink will enable bidirectional web linking.
 XPath: XPath is used to navigate xml tree structure. Explain from (fig2.16).XPath is
used to specify nodes using their location in an xml tree.
 XQuery: XQuery brings database query processing to xml, Flattening, changing
structure by nesting.  Changing structure by explicit grouping, sorting. Tag variables.
2. Explain briefly XML Schema:
  A xml schema is used to define the structure of xml document.  The schema defines
the list of element, the order in which that must appear in xml document and attributes that
can be used in xml document.
Datatype used in a XML Schema:
 XSD provides a list of predefined data type.  These data types can be classifies as
• Primitive: String, Decimal, Float, Boolean, Time Duration, Required Duration.
• Derived: Integer, long, non-negative integer, positive integer, int, Time, Date.
• Atomic: Atomic data type are those datatype that cannot be broaden down into smaller
• List : List Datatype or derived data type that contain a set of value of an atomic
• Union: Union datatype are derived from atomic and list datatype. •
XML Processing:
 When xml arrives as the server both validation and processing can be performed by
xml parses. xml parsing and processing there are two alternatives.

 Document object Model(DOM):

 Simple API for xml(SAX):
3.Explain about Presentation Technique?
 Xml presentation technologies provides  a modular way to deliver and display
content to a variety of devices.  It examine some technologies for display including css,xsl,
xforms, xhtml, voicexml.
[1] CSS: CSS is used to control document display. Explain from fig(2.10).CSS is aW3C
[1] XSL: XSL began as an effort to provide a better css. XSL is based on applying rules or
template to an xml document. CSS compared to XSL(Table2.1).
[1] XForms: Forms are widely used in all aspects of ecommerce. XForms delivers xml.
XForms implementation.XForms provides a standard way to collect from data through a
variety of device interface (fig2.12)
[1] XHTML: XHTML brings HTML into conformance with xml. XHTML modules build
a base for the future. XHTML allows specialized markup languages to be developed.  The
Structure of XHTML(fig 2.13);
[1] Voice xml: Void xml uses xml text to drive voice dialogs. Voicexml documents are
used to drive voice interactions over conventional or wireless phones(fig2.14).voice xml
supports both forms and menus.
4.Short notes on XML Namespaces?
 Namespaces eliminates the ambiguity of the same name from different providers.
Namespaces use URLs to distinguish names.  The XML namespaces recommendation
allows identical element names from different sources to be distinguished.
Namespace Declarations:
 The simplest approach is to declare a namespace is a top-level element and let all
the element and attributes under the top-level element come under the scope of the
      xml and ws
Namespace Abbrevations:Namespace abbreviations may be used to simplify writing and
reading the xml.
5. Explain briefly DTD?
        DTD can be used by both sender and receiver of xml. DTDs are written  using a
different syntax from XML.DTDs define the elements and attributes.  DTSx are not able to
distinctions about datatype.
 XML and DTDs:
  A DTD can be declared either within xml document or external document.

 Internal DTD that begins with “”.

 External DTD :
Defining Attributes in DTDs:
 DTD may also be used to specify attributes  using the following form.
some of the attribute-type in a xml DTD(Table A-1)
Default Attribute value:  The  syntax for default attribute values is as follows:
some of the default attribute values in DTD(TableA-2)
Implied Attribute:
 The syntax for implies attribute value is as follows:
1. Briefly Explain About HTTP & XML-RPC
 HTTP is an important building block for using XML as a Web-based messaging
protocol.  In 1992 that the face of the Internet was changed through the use of a simple
request-response protocol known as HTTP.
 Figure 4.3 shows that HTTP works much like FTP except that the contents of a file
are delivered to a browser instead of a file system. The first HTTP specification written by
Tim Berners-Lee is a study in simple elegance.  Clients request files from servers using a
simple text string of the form:
GET Command
 ‘GET Filename’ this command interpreted as a request to a server listening on port
80.  The response of the server is either the contents of the requested file or a string
indicating an error.  HTTP gains its power from its simplicity and its explicit avoidance of
transport lock-in.  HTTP sits on top of TCP/IP, which is responsible for reliably moving
data between Internet nodes.
Post Command:
 The POST command is a request for a server to do something with data delivered as
part of the POST message.  POST was included in the GTTP specification in order to
deliver HTML from data to a server for processing by some server program.
Difference between GET & POST
XML-RPC  XML-RPC, which does remote procedure calls over the Internet, is a great example
of out-of-the-box thinking.  In confronting the communication problem of how a program
on machine A can get some code on machine B to run, XML-RPC ignores the difficulty
entirely and delegates the transport to HTTP, focusing instead on the details of what to say,
not how to get the message there.
Data Typing
 XML-RPC uses XML Schema data types to specify the parameter types of the
procedure call.  Data types include scalars, numbers, strings, and dates, as well as complex
record and list structure.
 The XML-RPC specification places a number of minimal requirements on the
XML, including the following:
• The XML payload must be well-formed XML and contain a single method Call
• The method Call element must contain a method Name sub-item consisting of a string
that names the method to be called.
• If parameters are required, the method Call element must contain a params sub-items
that contains individual param elements, each of which contains a single value.
XML-RPC Responses
 The job of the server is to process the XML-RPC request for the execution of some
piece of code and return a value to the client.  
XML-RPC specifies that the response to a procedure call must be a single XML structure, a
method Response, which can contain either the return value packaged in a single params
element or a fault element which contains information about why the fault occurred.
2. Explain about SOAP message, design patterns, faults, and SOAP with attachments.
SOAP Message Structure
         SOAP consists of 3 parts
                Explain SOAP envelop
            Explain SOAP header
            Explain   SOAP body SOAP Design Patterns
      Software architecture pattern provide a high level conceptual view of a software
system. There are 2 types of architecture patterns.
     *Layer Pattern
      *Pipe and Filter
          Faults occur when application couldn’t understand soap message. Soap
faults are
                                • Fault code
• Fault string
• Detail
SOAP with attachments
 SOAP provides a protocol to deliver XML across the Internet. But not only XML
needs to be transported but also other related documents such as  DTDs, schema, Unified
Modeling Language diagrams, faxes, public and private keys and digests that may be
related to XML.
SOAP and Firewalls
 Soap’s global reach is made possible by its alliance with HTTP, the Internet
protocol that is the basis for moving data back and forth from Web servers to
browers.HTTP works by accessing Web servers on port 80, which is kept open for Web
3. Explain briefly SOAP Intermediates, Actors, Design and Patterns, Faults.
SOAP Intermediaries:
[1] SOAP Intermediaries are an  essential aspect of building scalable  web based
distributed system
[1] A  SOAP compliant  server must be able to act as a  SOAP intermediary capable of
processing  and forwarding SOAP Message
[1] SOAP intermediaries are specified by their URIS
[1] If SOAP actor attribute is not present in a header, then recipient of message is the final
destination, while receiving SOAP Message.
 Identify parts of message intended for application 
 Process it
 If parts of message could not be identified, it’s ignored.
                     Patterns provide a structure within which components can be designed and
                       •  It reflects pipe and fifterpattern just like UNIX system
           •  Firewalls by using port 80 Soap support intermediaries along data path
                       •  Sax -simple API for xml parsing supports intermediaries along an xml
parsing path.                        •     Filters used to perform complex tasks.
•     Layers like osi layer concept are also adopted here.
          Faults occur when application couldn’t understand soap message. Soap
faults are
                                • Fault code
• Fault string
• Detail
4. Explain briefly SOAP with attachments. 
  A. SOAP provides a protocol to deliver XML across the Internet. But not
only XML needs to be transported but also other related documents such as  DTDs,
schema, Unified Modeling Language diagrams, faxes, public and private keys and digests
that may be related to XML.
The SOAP with attachments document defines a binding for a SOAP message to be carried
within a Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) multipart/related message in such
a way that processing rules for SOAP messages are preserved. The MIMIE multipart
mechanism for encapsulation of compound documents can be used to bundle entities
related to the SOAP message, such as attachments.
SOAP and Firewalls
 Soap’s global reach is made possible by its alliance with HTTP, the Internet
protocol that is the basis for moving data back and forth from Web servers to
browers.HTTP works by accessing Web servers on port 80, which is kept open for Web
The W3C and SOAP
 The XML Protocol Working Group is W3C group formed in response to the
submission of the SOAP1.1 specifications as the basis for a universal XML-based protocol.
The goal of the XML Protocol Working Group is the creation of simple protocols that can be deployed across the Web and easily programmed through scripting languages, XML and
Web tools.
Taking SOAP to the Next Level
 Going beyond the simple use of SOAP to exchange data, several options are
emerging that use SOAP as their base protocol.. Other options include Electronic Business
XML and Web services.
5. Explain briefly about SOAP?
SOAP is an XML-based protocol for exchanging information in a decentralized  distributed
environment. It was a combination of XML and HTTP made for data transform through
web environment.
    The Road to SOAP
             *Explain about EDI
             *Explain about HTTP
Data Type:
     XML-RPC uses XML schema data type to specify the parameter type of the procedure
call. Data type includes scalars, number, string, and dates as well as complex record and list
SOAP Protocol:
         The transport protocol used by CORBA, DCOM, RMI or IIOP, ORPC, JRMI IS
SOAP Overview 
   (1)Encoding rules that control XML tags.
   (2)Rules for exchange application defined data type.
   (3)Conventions for representing remote procedure calls and responses.
SOAP Message Structure
       SOAP consists of 3 parts
              Explain SOAP envelop
            Explain SOAP header
            Explain   SOAP body
SOAP Design Patterns
      Software architecture pattern provide a high level conceptual view of a software
system. There are 2 types of architecture patterns.
     *Layer Pattern
      *Pipe and Filter
Unit – IV
1. Explain about Web Services Technologies?
Web Services Technologies
 Web services depends on several enabling technologies  SOAP, UDDI,and WSDL.
The Web Service Architechture
•A service provider
•A service requester
•A repository or broker
Key Technologies: •UDDI
 UDDI is a protocol for describing Web services components that allows business to
register with an Internet directory so they can advertise their services and complaies can
find each other and carry out transactions over the web.
UDDI framework specifications
•The UDDI Programmer's API Specification
•The UDDI Data Structure Specification
UDDI Failure And Recovery
 WSDL is the proposed standard for describing a Web service. It is the piece of the
webservice framework that describes how to connect to web services. the WSDL
specifications supports the building of web based computing services that target computer
programs rather than human users.
Risks of WEb Services:
•Configuration Management
Web services pros & cons
 SOAP is a protocol for communicationg with a UDDI service. SOAP simplifies
UDDI access by allowing applications to invoke object methods or functions residing on
remote servers. The advantage of SOAP is that it can use universal HTTP to  make a
request and to receve a response. SOAP requests and responses use XML not only to target
the remote method but to [ackage any data that required by the method.
2. Explain about ebXML?
 Electronic Business XML represents a global initiative to define processes around 
which business can interact over the Web. It is the technology aimed at bringing the
benefits of  B2B data exchange to global audience of small,medium, and large businesses. 
The broad effort of ebXML includes multiple specifications that define standard ways of
exchanging business messages,conducting trading relationships,communicationg data in
common terms, and defining and registering business processes.
The key players behind ebXML 
Supporters of ebXML
•Global Commerce Initiative
•Open Applicaton Group Inc
•Other industry groups
ebXML Technologies
 ElectronicBusiness XML is based on a set of building blocks that  makes use of
existing standards wherever possible.
The technical architecture consists of several pieces:
•Business process
•Trading partner profiles and agreements
•Registries and Repositories
•Core Components
ebXML Terminology 
•Business Processes
•Collabration Protocol profile(CPP)
•Business Service Interface
•Business Messages
•Core Library
•Collaboration Protocol Agreement(CPA)
3.Explain about  Soap,WebServices and E-Commerce?
 Soap provide loosely coupled message based architecture for performing
interaction. However to use the loosely coupled web space for commercial  server based
interaction. It is very necessary to add transactional capability. To add transactional
capability middleware are depended which has it roots in tightly coupled object system.
  A transaction is a set of software operations. A transaction should satisfy the following
properties called ACID properties.
1.Atomicity-      Either all of the operations should be performer or none of them may be
2.Consistency-       Refer to data consistency.
3.Isolation -       Only one transaction can manipulate data at a particular time.
4.Durability -      It means that update made by a committed transaction persist in the
database    regardless of failure that occur alter the commit transaction.
    The secured socket layer  and transport layer security protocol and doing well for web
based E-Commerce.
Soap and Web service protocol
    Doesn’t  address security issue. Soap specialized security implementation for transaction
Xml on .NET  and J2EE.
IDENTITY     Web based network need a way to authenticate and validity user. To do  this system
validate user based on permission stored in database.
        Passport Microsoft authentication service that allow user that as the website and
services. The passport can be integrated in Microsoft hotmail E-mail service and entry for
Microsoft .NET services.
The Liberty Alliance Project:
 It is a alternative to passport. It is used to create universal digital identity service based on
open service.
4. Explain about .NET?
• .NET is a Microsoft framework.
• Microsoft’s .NET is an umbrella term that describes Microsoft’s strategy for delivering
software as services across the web.
• .NET is an initiative represents a development framework that integrates earlier
Microsoft technologies with newer technologies built around XML.
• .NET allows developers to build a service-oriented consciousness into software up front
rather than as an afterthought.
• The .NET architecture includes several technology components:
1. Development tools.
2. Specialized servers. 
3. Web services.
4. Devices.
•   The .Net platform consists of five main components:
1. Operating system layer.
2. .NET building block services.
3. .NET framework.
4. .NET servers
5. Visual Studio .NET.
•   A Common Language Runtime supports different languages for .NET       
•   The .NET framework is architected around a unified hub and spoke programming
model designed to make different languages interchangeable.
• The .NET approach to software integration is based on a hub and spoke configuration
where a variety of languages are translated into a CLR.
• COBOL can be used to develop .NET applications
                         Unit: V
1.Explain briefly about the security?
Three Security requirements
 *Confidentiality=>Ensuring that informations not made available
          to unauthorized  individuals. 
             *Authentication=>Ability to determine that the 
message really comes from the listed sender.
  *Data integrity=>Ensuring that when information arrives at its
 Enoding and decoding methods   *Single-key cryptography
   =>Both the sender and receiver should know the secret key.
=>Each key is replaced 
                    eg: a with b, b with  c. so on
    =>decoding key must be communicated from
         sender to revceiver.
    =>It does not scale to the web.
  *Public key cryptography
 =>Based on complementory public and private keys.
 =>No need to exchange a secret key.
 =>use mathematical formula to generate key.
     Confidentiality=>Encryption with public key  ensures it.
     Authentication=> Encryption with private key  ensures it. 
     Data Integrity=>Ensures that the message received is the messane sent
 Digital integrity:
  =>It is like writing your name across the face of a document.
  =>It guarantees document authenticity.
 Managing certificates and private keys;
  =>Represent trusted entites in websecurity.
  =>limited lifespans for allow changes in circumstance.
2.Explain briefly about i) XML Security Framework
W3c is driving three xml security technologies:
 -XML Digital Signature
 -XML Encryption
 -XML Key Management Services
      - XKMS is a w3c initiative
     -   targets delegation of trusts processing decisions to one or more specialized trust     
- it is one of the three w3c specification that define the xml security architecture
- specifies protocol for distributing and registering public keys 
- suitable for use in conjunction withproposed standard
- XKMS has two parts
- 1.the xml key information service specification(X-KISS)
- 2.xml key registration service specificayion(X-KRSS)
- defines a protocol for a trust service
- basic objective is to minimize the complexity of applicatrion implementation
- the xml signature specification does not mandate use of a particular trust policy
-defines aprotocol for a web service that accepts registration of public key
-a client service may request that reregistration service bind information to public key
       -the protocol provides for the authentication 
3.Explain briefly about i) XML Digital Signature
                 ii) Guidelines for signing XML documents       XML Digital Signature
 The XML digital signature specification defines boyh the syntax and rules for
processing XML digital signature.signatures provide integrity,message authentication and
signer authentication services for data.
Digital signature Elements
 The elements are
• SignedInfo-information that is actually signed
• CanonicalizationMethod-indicates algorithm used to canonicalize the signed element
• SignatureMethod-specifies algorithm used to convert the canonicalized signedInfo into
signature value
• Reference-includes the method to compute the digital hash and the resulting digest
• KeyInfo-indicates the key used to validate signature.
• Transforms-list of processing steps applied to resources content before digest is
• Digestmethod-specifies algorithm applied to data after Transforms is applied.
• DigestValue-holds value computed on the data being signed
Steps in signature generation
1. create a SignedInfo element with signatureMethod,CanonicalizationMethod,and
2. canonicalize the XML document
3. calculate the SignatureValue based on algorithms specified in  
4.    construct the signature elements that includes signedInfo,KeyInfo and   
Guidelines for Signing XML Documents
 XML relies on substitution and transformation
 Content of external stylesheet should be signed if its referred
 The information that was presented must be signed
 Transformations may alter content ,so the transformed data should be signed
 The security of overall system depends on the security and integraty of procedures and
personel as well as well as procedural enforcement
4.Explain briefly about i) canonicalization
               ii)XML Encryption
             XML canonicalization is the use of an algorithm to generate the canonical form
Of an XML document. XML is subject to surface representation changes or to processing 
that discards some information.
 The steps during  the creation of a core canonical form include
• Encoding the document in the Universal Character Set UTF_8
• Normalizing line breaks before parsing
• Replacing character and parsed entity References
• Converting  Empty Element to start-end tag pairs Steps in canonical form:
 encoding the document in the universal character set UTF-8
 normalizing line breaks before parsing
 normalizing attribute values
 replacing characters and parsed entity references
 replacing CDATA sectionswith their character content
 removing type declaration and document type declaration
 converting empty elements to start end tags
 normalizing white spaces
 setting attribute value delimiters
 replacing special characters in attribute values and character content
 removing superfluous namespace declarations from each element
 adding default  attributes to each element
-support encryption on all part of the xml document
-allow encryption any of the following
            *  the entire xml document
            *  an element and all its subelement
            *  content of an xml element
            * referance to a resource outside the document
Additional information is provided since XML Encryption is not locked
           -Encrypted content-information itself or referance to the location of the data
            -Keyinformation-information or referance to information
Steps in xml encryption the xml to be encrypted
      2.Convert to canonical form if using entities or namepaces
      3.encrypting the resulting canonical form using public key encryption
     4.sending the encrypted xml to the intended recipient
Encrypting xml data
    -1.xml subelement and content Encryption
    -2.partial xml element encryption 
    -3.encrypting Xml element content only
5. Explain the applications of XML as occuring in three waves?
 Wave One: Vertical Industry Data Descriptions
• Finance: OFX
     -OFX uses XML to bridge the gap between brokerage
databases and personal         software
     -The focus of HR-XML vocabulary has been on data
exchange, not on data                               storage.
• Human Resources and HR-XML
- HR-XML defines a common vocabulary for   storing human resources data.
- XML-HR specifically targets XML  for data storage, not B2B transactional data.
- uses elements for data and attributes for meta data
• Mortgage Banking: MISMO
- MISMO’s XML definitions focus on data transfer.
• Tracking XML Standards
- OASIS is an organization that tracks and promotes XML standards.
- OASIS’s technical work falls into one of the following categories:
1. Vertical industry applications
2. Horizontal and e-business framework 3. Interoperability
4. Conformance Testing
Wave Two: Configuration  and Action
• EJB and XML
  - EJB uses XML for software configuration.
  - The XML-based deployment descriptor contains two kinds of information:
         1. EJB structural information
         2. Application assembly information
  - SVG defines an XML grammar for creating vector-based 2D graphics for the    
     web and other applications.
  - Advantages over GIF and JPEG:
        1. Readability
        2. Scalability
        3. Ability to zoom
        4. Searchable and selectable text
        5. Scripting and animation
  - Software packages that can be used to display SVG image:
                                   1. Adobe SVG Viewer
          2. Apche Batik SVG browser
        3. CSIRO Pocket SVG viewer
• Voice XML
  - The Voice XML standard provides a platform for voice applications
  - Voice XML documents describe conversations
  - Voice XML supports forms and menus.
    *  Forms provide voice control for     
             completing the equivalent web form
    * Menus present users  with a choice of options and have the ability
to            transfer control to other menu dialogs based on user
     -SMIL uses XML to build multimedia presentations
[1] Advantages:
  -Faster and easier development
  -Web standard support in IE 5.5 RealPlayer,Windows Media        
Player and Adobe’s SVG plug-in
  - No requirement that users enable Java Script in their  browsers
[1] SMIL elements:
  -SMIL includes elements that describe not only how to draw        
graphics but also how to coordinate them over time
[1] SMIL Modularization:
  -SMIL modules address the problem of integration
 Wave Three: Power through combination
• The British Government GovTalk Initiative
-GovTalk use XML as the basis for exchanging information among government systems.
      -Three important policy decisions:

 Internet Alignment


 Web browser as GUI