2-mark Q & A
Unit I
1. What are the three major aspects to extend the enterprise from a constrained network      
      to  broad reach of web?                                                                                                                   
     1.  Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Connection.
    2. Business-to-Employee (B2E) Connection.
    3. Business-to-Business (B2B) Connection.
2. What are the three key design elements  that by omission contribute XML’s success?
1. No display is assumed.
2. There is no built-in data typing.
3. No transport is assumed.XML specification makes no aassumption about how XML
is transported across the Internet.
3. XML History
            XML is a meta language defined by world wide web consortium (W3C) and 
standardized in 1998.XML has  given rise to numerous vertical industry  vocabularies in
support of B2B e-commerce, horizontal vocabularies that provide service to a wide range
of industries and  XML protocols that have used XML’s simple power of combination to
open up new possibilities for doing distributed computing.
4. What are the different revolution in which XML is playing a major role?
                 a)Data revolution
                 b)Architectural revolution
                 c)Software revolution
5. What are the advantages of xml?
 a.xml files are human readable.
 b.Widespread industry support exists for xml due to its inexpensiveness and                                                                                        
convenience in usage.
 c.It provides a way of creating domain specific vocabulary.
 d.It allows data interchange  between different computers.
 e.It provides user selected view of data.
6.What is Electronic Data Interchange(EDI)?
 EDI  is  often used as the replacement for business communication through
conventional business documents such as purchase orders,request for quotations,invoice
and shipping notices.This kind of exchange takesplace between
 trading partners.Inorder to interchange data using EDI to trading partners must be agreed
upon a common format.
7.What is W3c (World Wide Web)Consortium?
 W3c is responsible for the development of web specifications that describe
communication protocols and  technologies for the web .XML was defined by w3c to
ensure that structured data is uniform and independent of vendors 
of applications.W3c has laid down certain rules that meet to be followed by the all xml
applications.Some of these rules are:
 a.XML must be directly usable over the internet.
 b.XMl must support the wide variety of applications.  c.XML must be SGML.
 d.XML documents must be human legible and clear.
 e.XML design must be formal and concise.
8.What is XML?
             XML stands for “Extensible markup language” a language developed by the World
wide web consortium (W3C).It is considered a meta language because it is used 
To define other languages through the use of markup language ,which add structure and 
Meaning to document.
9.List out the reasons for not using attributes to store data.
       1.Attributes cannot contain multiple values,while elements can have multiple
       2.Attributes are not easily expandable to account for future changes.
       3.Attributes are more difficult than elements to manipulate with programs.
      4.Attributes values are not easy to check against a document type definition. 
10.What is SOAP?
     SOAP-Simple Object Access Protocol
         Soap gives set of rules for moving data directly to the receipient or through and
intermediate message queue.Soap uses common web protocols like HTTP,FTP and SMTP
to enable communication across the web.
11. What is webservices?
           Webservices is both a process and a set of protocols,webservices offer different
services through the web by providing access to softwares.Webservices have three major
aspects they are
• Service provider
• Service requester
• A broker
12.What are all the xml language basics?
• Elements
• Attributes
• Entities
13.What is entities?Give Example.
              Entities are used to create substitution strings within a xml document
            Xml and data evaluation can be defined with short string using entity declaration in
14.Explain briefly about .NET and J2EE?
          Managing the interaction across the extended enterprise include
messaging,security,transactions,andidentity.The current software world, these capabilities
are provided by (1).NET a window frame work (2)J2EE a java centric frame work.
15.Explain briefly abour data revolution?          Prior to xml,Data was closely associated with applications.XML strength is data
independence.XML data description is not tied to any programming language,os,or
transport protocol it doesnot require to depend any available to web connected platfoforms
also XML provides alternative to electronic data interchange.
16.What is the role of xml?
        XML is the set of guidelines foe describing structured data in plaintext rather than
binary representation within the short period,time.XML has been widely used as language
for variety of application ranging from vertical industry vocabularies to horizontal industry
application to protocol.
17. What are Xforms?
                Xforms is an XML approach that overcome the limitation forms.XForm is a                            
GUI tool kit for create user interface and deliver result in XML.Xform can work with a  
variety of standard as proprietary user interface, providing a set of visual control that
replace the primitive form control in HTML and XHTML.Xforms are variety of button,
scrollbars and menus integrated into single execution model that generates XML form data
18. What is VoiceXML?
                        VoiceXML is an emerging standard for speech enabled application. Its
XML   syntax defines elements to control a sequence of interaction dialogues between a
user and an implementation platform. The element defined as a part of VoiceXML control
dialogues and rules for presentation information to and extracting information from and
end-user using speech. Voice XML documents are stored on web servers.
19. What is XPath?
               XPath is used to navigate XML tree structures. XPath gets its name from its use
of path notation to navigate through the hierarchical tree structure of an XML
doucument.XPath allows for the section of the node or group of node through the use of a
compact, on XML syntax. It is an important XML technology due to its role in providing a
common syntax and semantics for functionality in both XSLT and Xpointer.
  20.What are the Element Naming Rules used in XML?
               * Names can contain letters, numbers and other characters.
               * Names must not begin with number or punctuation.
               * Names must not start with the string "xml" in any upper or lowercase form.
               * Names must not contain spaces
Unit – II
    1.  What are the advantages of schema over DTD?
        1. It provides more control over the type of data that can be assigned to elements and 
               as compared to DTD.
        2. DTD dose not enable you to define your own customized datatypes.But schema  
              definition enables you to create your own datatypes.
        3. It also allows to specify restrictions on data.
        4. The syntax for defining DTD is different from the syntax used for creating an xml                document .But the syntax for defining  XSD is the same as the syntax of an xml
2.  What are the datatypes in an xml schema?
3. What is DOM? What  are the different levels of DOM?
        DOM is a W3C supported standard programming interface(API)that provides a
        platform and neutral interface to allow developers to programatically 
        access and modify content and structure of tree structured documents 
        such as HTML or XML.
                  The different levels of DOM are:          
                  (a)  DOM Level 0
                  (b) DOM Level 1
                  (c) DOM Level 2
                  (d) DOM Level 3
4. What are the drawbacks of CSS?
        1. The browser decides how to dispaly elements that the stylesheet does'nt describe.       
        2. As browser implements CSS,some implementations may not always be consistent.
5. Write any two differences between XSLT and CSS?
                      CSS                                               XSLT
        1. Simple to use,and is suitable                           1. It is complex to use.                         
            for simple document.
        2. Cannot reorder,add,delete or                            2. Can reorder,add,delete                       
           perform operations on                                      elements because it is    
           elements.                                                  aware of the structure 
                                                                                             of an XML document.
6.  What are the different  XSLT elements?
          1. Stylesheet
          2. Value-of
          3. For-each
          4. Sort
          5. Text
7.  What is VoiceXML?
              VoiceXML is an emerging standard for speech-enabled applications.Its XML         syntax defines elements to control a sequence of interaction dialogs between 
        a user and an implementation platform. VoiceXML uses XML text to drive voice
8. What is XQuery?
             XQuery is a W3C initiative to define a standard set of constructs for querying
      and searching XML documents. XQuery brings database query processing to XML.
9. What is XForm?
             XForm is an XML approach that overcomes the  limitations of HTML forms.
        XForm includes a variety of buttons, scrollbars and menus.  It generates XML
        form data as output. XForm's model has the capability to work with the variety 
        of user interfaces.                       
10.  What is XPath?
               Xpath is used to navigate XML tree structures. XPath gets its name from 
         its use of a path notation to navigate through the hierarchical tree structure
         of an XML document. It is an important XML technology due to its role in 
         providing a common syntax and semantics for functionality in both XSLT
         and XPointer.
11.what are complex types?
    complex types are an important aspects of xml schema that allow application         
    developers to define application-specific datatypes that can be checked by programs 
    that check XML document for validity. XML schema divides complex types into two 
    categories: those with simple content & those with complex content.
12.what all are the presentation technologies?
     CSS - cascading syle sheets
     XSL - provides users with ability to describe how xml data & document are to be
     Xforms - it is a GUI toolkit for creating user interfaces & delivering the results in XML.
     Xhtml - it is used yo replace HTML with more flexable approach to display 
     VoiceXML - it is an emerging standard for speech enabled application.  
13.what are all the Transformation techniques?
    XSLT - it is an XML- based languages used to transform XML documents into others                  
                format such as HTML for web display.
    XLINK - highlighting that element or taking the user directly to that point in the 
    XPATH - xpath gets its name from its use of a payh notation to navigate through the
                    hierarchical tree structure of an XML document  
    XQUERY - it is w3c initiative to define a standard set of constructs for querying & 
                     searching XML document.
14.Explain any two XForm implementations?  
     X-Smiles - it is a java based XML browser.it implements a large part of 
                X-forms & uses X-form together with XSL-FO on user interface side.
     Mozquito Xforms preview - is an XML based Web developement s/w that implements  
                               Xforms & gives current  Web browser the ability to 
                               send,receive & process XML document.
15.  Importants of SAX?
         SAX is an event driven.
         SAX supports processing pipelines.
         SAX requires programmers to maintain state.
16.  What is Info Set?
 A W3C initiative to provide a consistent set of definitions for use in other
specifications that need to refer to the information in a well-formed XML document. Info
Set is the basis for a variety of XML technologies. Info Set supports distinctions that are
important when different XML specifications must interoperate.
17.  What is RDF(Resource Description Framework)?
 A foundation for processing metadata. It provides interoperability between
applications that exchange machine-understandable information on the web. RDF
emphasizes facilities to enable automated processing of web resources.
18.  What is metadata?
 Literally data about data. XML element and attribute names are considered
metadata in that they may be used to describe the data contained in a document. Metadata
isn’t needed but it certainly helps.
19.  What are the components of RDF?
 RDF is built on the following three definitions:
       All things described by RDF expressions are called resources.
       Properties are specific aspects, characteristics, attributes or relations used to describe
       A statement consists of a resource, a property and a value.
20.What are RDF vocabularies?
 RDF is designed to have the following characteristics:
4.Properties functioning as resources.
5.Values functioning as resources.
6.Statements functioning as resources. 21. Explain about cascading style sheet?
 Cascading style sheet is one of the presentation technologies of xml.
 CSS is an xml supporting technology for adding style display properties such as fonts,
color, spacing to a web documents.
 CSS origins may be traced to the SHML world which used a style technolog7y called
DSSL to control the display of SHML document
 Each rule is made up of a selector typically an element name such as an html heading or
paragraph or a user defined xml element to the selector.
 Style  rules have the following syntax:
             Selector {property: value}
 Multiple style declaration for a single selector are separated by a semicolon
 The following code has show how a css element can b added to a html or a xml
document to define the color size properties.
22. What is DTD? How is it different from XML?
[1] DTD stands for Document Type Definition
[1] DTD is a description of the structure & the elements and attributes that define a class of
XML document.
[1] DTD can be declared both internally in a XML document and as an external reference.
DTD Xml Schema
1. Dtd is used to define the structure of an
xml document.
1. Xml schema is used to define the
structure of an xml document.
2. Data type for elements limited to text. 2. Numerous predefined data types
3. Complex data types cannot be defined. 3. Ability to define complex type that map
to application data structure.
4.Dtd document is stored as “filename.dtd” 4.Xml schema document is stored as
23. What is XML? How it is different from HTML?
    Xml is the text based make up language that stores the data in a structured format using
meaningful tags. It allows computers to store and exchange data in a format that can be
interpreted by any other computer with different hardware or software specification.
          XML       HTML 1.xml stands for Extensible markup
1. HTML stands for Hyper Text Mark Up
2.Several languages are derived from xml
& wml
2. HTML can be derived from xml.
3. Xml uses indefinite, user defined,
meaningful set of tags which can be used to
include XML data in the webpage.
3. HTML uses a fixed set of tags which can
be used to specify the appearance of the
24. Explain the creation of external DTD with example?
      A DTD may be external to an xml source document
   Syntax is:
Defining attributes in DTD
e.g. :
Xml code
External dtd
This is the body of external DTd
25. What is valid xml document?
If an xml document conforms to the rule set out by a DTD the xml is said to be valid with
the respect to that DTD.
1. What is HTTP and its use?
 HTTP is an important building block for using XML as a Web-based messaging
protocol.  In 1992 that the face of the Internet was changed through the use of a simple
request-response protocol known as HTTP. HTTP works much like FTP except that the
contents of a file are delivered to a browser instead of a file system.
2. Explain GET command File.  ‘GET Filename’ this command interpreted as a request to a server listening on port
80.  The response of the server is either the contents of the requested file or a string
indicating an error.  HTTP gains its power from its simplicity and its explicit avoidance of
transport lock-in.  HTTP sits on top of TCP/IP, which is responsible for reliably moving
data between Internet nodes.
3. What is POST command for?
 The POST command is a request for a server to do something with data delivered as
part of the POST message.  POST was included in the GTTP specification in order to
deliver HTML from data to a server for processing by some server program.
4. Explain XML-RPC.
 XML-RPC, which does remote procedure calls over the Internet, is a great example
of out-of-the-box thinking.  In confronting the communication problem of how a program
on machine A can get some code on machine B to run, XML-RPC ignores the difficulty
entirely and delegates the transport to HTTP, focusing instead on the details of what to say,
not how to get the message there
5. What data types does SOAP use?
 XML-RPC uses XML Schema data types to specify the parameter types of the
procedure call.  Data types include scalars, numbers, strings, and dates, as well as complex
record and list structures.
6.What is SOAP?
              SOAP is Simple Object Access Protocol that offer platform,language
              And transport independence for data exchange between partners and
              Suppliers.SOAP is an XML-based protocol for exchanging informatiom
               in a decentralized distributed environment.the fundamental change brought 
               about   by SOAP has been the ability to move data anywhere across the
               web.SOAP has opened opportunities for extending the enterprise
7.What is HTTP?
             HTTP is an important building block for using XML as a web based messaging 
             Protocol.The face of the internet was changed through the use of  a simple 
             request-response protocol known as HTTP.Both HTTP and FTP moves data across
the Internet.FTP delivers  data directly to disk while HTTP delivers it to browser
                                                          fig 4.3
8.Describe HTTP GET command?
            HTTP is an important building block for using XML as a web based messaging
protocol.Client request files  from servers using a simple text string of the form 
                         “GET filename”
             The HTTP GETcommand request a web page .The HTTP POST command delivers
information and receives information back
                                                            Fig 4.4
9.Data Typing in XML-RPC.
               XML-RPC elements simply define a vocabulary to communicate information
              About a piece of code to be executed on some remote server.XML-RPC uses
XML schema data types to specify the parameter types of the procedure call.Data type
include scalars, numbers, strings and dates as well as complex record and list structure
10.Describe SOAP fault.
                             SOAP fault occurs when an application cannot understand a SOAP message or  
             when err or occurs during the processing of a message.The information that can               
              be returned as a part of a fault includes the following:
• SOAP code: SOAP defines a set of fault codes for basic SOAP
Errors,although a an  application may provide its own codes.
• Faultstring: This element provide a readable explanation as 
To why the fault occurred.
• Detail: The value of the detail element is that it provides information about the
problem that occurred while processing the body element.
If not present,it indicates that the problem did not occur in the body of the SOAP.
11. What is XML Protocol Working Group?
The XML Protocol Working Group is W3C group formed in response to the submission of
the SOAP1.1 specifications as the basis for a universal XML-based protocol. The
formation of the working group signals the W3C’s willingness to consider extending the
Web from a network that delivers documents and links to human users, to a network that
supports communication between applications.
12. What is the goal of XML Protocol Working Group?
The goal of the XML Protocol Working Group is the creation of simple protocols that can
      deployed across the Web and easily programmed through scripting languages, XML
and Web  
13. What is SOAP with attachments?
 The SOAP with attachments document defines a binding for a SOAP message to be
carried within a for
     Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) multipart/related message in such a
way that processing 
     rules SOAP messages are preserved.
14.  When do SOAP faults occur?
 SOAP faults occur when an application cannot understand a SOAP message or
when an error occurs 
      during the processing of a message.
15. What are Message Paths in SOAP?
 An important aspect of SOAP is the provision for message paths. Independent of
the transport protocol
     Used to send SOAP messages, messages may be routed from server along a so-called
message path.
16.Define SOAP?
 SOAP stands for simple object access protocol SOAP is an xml based protocol for
exchanging information in the decentralized distributed environment.  It is a combination
of xml and http and made for data transfer to web environment.
17. Define HTTP?
 HTTP stand for Hyper Text Transfer protocol.HTTP is a simple request response
protocol. A HTTP delivers a file to a browser.  HTTP transfer data between client and
server. 18. Difference between SOAP and IIOP,ORPC & JRME?
i. Text based protocol that uses xml
ii. Able to move more easily across firewalls.
iii. SOAP is standard driven   Binary protocols
The process is somewhat tedious These protocols are vendor Driven
19.What are the parts in the SOAP message?
 SOAP message consists of these parts
• SOAP Envelope:  Outer most element of a soap message. A envelope element is a
root of a xml document.
• SOAP Header:It is optional usually header provides information about directing
SOAP servers to do processing before passing the SOAP message.
• SOAP Body: the xml document to be transported is loaded in the body element.
20 What is xml RPC?
 A protocol for doing remote procedure calls over the Web where the information
about what procedure to call and what parameters to pass are encoded as xml in the body of
an HTTP POST request to a server. 
21. Define SOAP?
• SOAP is an xml based protocol for exchanging information in a decentralized
environment . 
• It is a combination of xml and http and made for data transfer through web
• SOAP allows xml to move easily over the web. So defines an xml envelop for
delivering  the xml content and gives a set of rules for servers to do this job.
• SOAP consists of three parts:
                     1. Encoding rules that control XML tags that define a SOAP message and a  
                         Framework that describe message content.
                     2. Rules foe exchanging application-defined data types, including when to      
                         accept or discard data or return an exception to the sender.
                     3. Conventions for representing remote procedure calls and responses.
22. Which are the environments that supporting SOAP?
• Web services frameworks used SOAP as the transport technology.
• The .Net from Microsoft support SOAP.
• SUN is using SOAP, in its web services framework “SUN OPEN NET”
environment (SUN1).
• IBM provides SOAP protocol tools.
• CORBA vendors such as Iona are supporting SOAP in the form of CORBA to
SOAP bridges.
23.   Define SMIL?
    *   It  uses xml. It can be used to define instructions for the creation of web  
                         based interactions multimedia presentation . It can be used to control
                        animation in browsers instead of using technologies such as flash and java                                        
                        can be used to describe      1. Multimedia presentation 
    2. Adding hyperlink to media object 
    3. Layout of screen presentation
                   *   XML 2.0 is a w3c standard recommendation . 
                   *  The advantages of SMIL are
      1.  Faster and easier development.
      2. Supported in internet explorer 5.5, real player, windows media player    
          and adopts SIG plug- in.
      3. Not necessary to enable java script in the browser.
      4. Faster animation than flash.
     24.  Give a brief discussion about SMIL elements?
• SMIL  provides elements to draw graphics and also to coordinate them                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
over time. SMIL uses timeline to perform this. 
• Timeline can be used to schedule running of different  complex         multimedia
objects .
• The different timeline elements are
            1. seq->For animations that run one after another.
            2. par->For animation that are all run at the same time.
            3. excl->For exclusive elements.(animation which pause all other
              time line when they run.)
   25.  Define SMIL modularization?
*. SMIL is usually broke into modules.
                     *. A module contains semantically related xml elements, attributes and    
                          attribute values.
   *. SMIL languages profile can be used to combine modules to provide the 
                         functionality required by a specific application.   
                     *. Modularization enables language designers to specify dedicated markup   
                          intended for integration with other existing XML languages,such as 
                          MathXML and XForms.
                     *. The use of modules in SMIL is based on work done with XHTML 
                     *. A module is a collection of semantically-related XML
                         elements,attributes, and attribute values that represents a unit of 
1. What is Web Services?
 Web service is a technology, a process, and a phenomenon. As a technology it is a
set of protocols that builds on the global connectivity made possible by SOAP and HTTP.
As a process, it is an approach to s/w discovery and connection over web. As a
phenomenon, it’s an industry wide realization.
2. What are the things available in Web Services?
 1. Describing: Web services describe its functionality and attributes
 2. Exposing: Web services register with a repository that contains a white pages
holding basic service-provider information, a yellow pages listing services by category, and
a green pages describing how to connect and use the services.  3. Being invoked: When a web service has been located, a remote application can
invoke the services.
 4. Returning a response: When a service has been invoked, results are returned to
the requesting application.
3. What Qualifies as Web Services?
 A Web service is anything that can define itself via an internet. The things that can
be expressed as web services:
 1. Software Component or Application
 2. A Movie review
 3. A travel package
4. List out the advantage of Web services technology?
 1. Decide on the service it wants to provide
 2. Pick a registry for uploading it’s information
 3.  Decide how to list its service at the registry
  4. Define explicitly how users can connect to its service
5. What are the major aspects of Web service technologies?
o A service provider provides an interface for software that can carry out a specified set
of tasks.
o A service requester discovers and invokes a software service to provide business
o A repository or broker manages and publishes the service. Service providers publish
their services with the broker, and requests access those services by creating bindings to the
service provider.
6. List out the key technologies?
[1] UDDI is a protocol for describing Web services components that allows
businesses to register with an Internet directory and advertise their services.
[1] WSDL is the proposed standard for describing a Web services. WSDL is
built around an XML-based service Interface Definition Language that defines both the
service interface and implementation details.
[1] SOAP is a protocol for communicating with a UDDI service.
7. What is UDDI?
 UDDI means Universal Description, Discovery and Integration. UDDI is a protocol
for communicating with registries. The core of UDDI is the UDDI Business Registry, a
global, pubic, online directory.
8. What are Web Services Registry Directories?
 White Pages: holding basic service-provider information
 Yellow Pages: listing services by category
 Green Pages: describing how to connect and use the services.
9. What is WSDL?
 WSDL is Web Service, Definition Language. WSDL is the piece of Web services
framework that describes how to connect to web service providers. The WSDL
specification supports the building of web based computing services that target computer
programs rather than human users.  10. What are the risks in Web Services?
• Maturity: Different implementation may not work together.
• Security: SOAP messages on port 80 bypass firewalls. So network
administrator has to implement necessary security to prevent attacks.
• Transaction: Transaction must be specified outside the web services
framework such as .NET or J2EE.
• Configuration Management: Change management is not addressed.
11. What is ebXML?
 ebXML is Electronic Business XML. It adds process to e-business interaction. It
represents a global initiative to define processes that can interact over the web. The effort
of ebXML includes multiple specifications that define standard ways to exchanging
business message, communicating data and defining and registering business processes.
12. What is Transaction?
 Transaction is a set of software operation that should satisfy the ACID properties of
transactions. The ACID properties are

 Atomicity: either all of the operation should be performed or none of them should
be performed

 Consistency: refers to data consistency

 Isolation: only one transaction can manipulate data at a particular time.

 Durability: the recoverability of the updated data even when a failure occurs after
the commit operation is performed.
13. What is Identity?
 Web based network services need a way to authenticate and validate users. To do
this system validates the user based on permissions stored in some database to determine
what the user can and can’t do.
14. What is passport?
 Passport is Microsoft’s single-sign-on authentication service that allow users to
access web size and services. Microsoft’s Passport maintains identity across a variety of
applications. Passport has been integrated with Microsoft’s Hotmail email service and is
the entry of .NET My services. 
14. What is .NET?
 .NET is a Microsoft framework. Microsoft .NET is a strategy for delivering s/w as
service across the web. The .NET initiative represents a development framework that
integrates earlier Microsoft technologies with newer technologies built around XML. 
15. What are components of .NET architecture?
 The .NET architecture includes several technology components:
♦ Development Tools:  set of languages, including C# and VB.NET, a class
library for building web service and web, Common Language Runtime (CLR) to execute
object within this framework.
♦ Specialized servers: to provide functionality for related data storage, e-mail
and B2B commerce
♦ Web services: support services such as passport and .NET My services
♦ Devices: .NET enabled non-PC devices, from cell phones to game boxes.
16. What are the components of .NET Platform?
 The main components of .NET Platform are, Operating System
Series of .NET Enterprise Servers
.NET architecture is VisualStudio.NET (VS.NET)
17. What are the key ingredients of the .NET Framework?
 The key ingredients of .NET Framework are,
[1] Common Language Runtime (CLR)]
[1] Common framework of classes that can be used by all .NET languages
18. What is J2EE?
 J2EE is the Java-centric enterprise platform specification. J2EE is used to built web
sites and application around Enterprise Java Bean (EJB.). Recently it has been extended to
include support for XML and Web Services.
19. What is SunONE?
 SunONE is Sun’s opened net environment. It is a framework for creating and
deploying web services from Sun’s J2EE framework. It relies on XML, SOAP and Java to
add Web Services extensions to bridge a gap between the loosely coupled and tighyly
coupled object framework.
20. What is ECLIPSE?
 Eclipse is an open-source, Java-based software platform designed for buildings
IDEs. Eclipse is an effort to reduce the complexity associated with building applications
that rely on other applications and services.
21. What is BEA?
 BEA is an application service provider that targets e-business solutions. BEA
WebLogic server, a java-based middle-tier server that integrates Web-based front ends with
back-end data stores.
22. What are the components of BEA WebLogic E-Business Platform?

 BEA WebLogic Server

 BEA WebLogic Integration

 BEA WebLogic Personalization Server
23. List out the different type of Adapters?
Input and output adapters for specifying XSLT style sheets to
transform service requests to the XML format required by service
Protocol adapter to connect with Web services using HTTP, JDBC,
Execution adapters to execute service requests in a particular flow,
relaying a request to contact a service provider, and relaying the response.
24.  What is Oracle?
 The Oracle 9i web service framework provides an infrastructure that support
development, management and deployment to portals, exchanges, and other internet and
mobile applications. It uses XML as a common access method.
25. List out the Web Service Pack in J2EE?
Java API for XML Processing (JAXP)
Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
Java API for XML Messaging (JAXM) Java API for XMP Remote Procedure Calls (JAX-RPC)
Java API for XML Registries (JAXR)
1. What is XKMS?
 XKMS is a W3C initiative that targets the delegation of trust processing decisions
to one or more specialized trust processors to give businesses an easier way to manage
digital signatures and data encryption .Instead of relaying on proprietary public-key
infrastructure implementations, companies can use standard interfaces to work with
different vendors to handle issues surrounding digital certification checking, revocation
status checking, and validation.
2. Define XKMS structure?
 XKMS specifies protocols for distributing and registering public  keys and is
suitable for use in conjunction with the proposed standard for XML signature and as a
companion standard for XML encryption. XKMS has two parts 
• XML key information service specification(X-KISS)
• XML key registration service specification(X-KRSS).
3. Define X-KISS?
 This defines a protocol for a trust service that resolves public –key Information
contained in documents that conform to the XML signature specification. A basic objective
of the protocol design is to minimize the complexity of application  implementations by
allowing them to become clients and there by to shielded from the complexity and syntax
of the underlying PKI used to establish trust relationships.
4. Define X-KRSS?
 This defines a protocol for a web service that accepts registration of  public –
key information. Once registered the public key may be used in conjunction with other web
services including X-KISS.
5. Steps involved in XML encryption?
• Selecting the XML to be encrypted.
• Converting to canonical form if using entities or namespaces with prefixes.
• Encrypting the resulting canonical form using public –key encryption.
• Sending the encrypted XML to the intended recipient.
6. What are digital signatures?
A digital signature guarantees document authenticity.  In combination with Public-key
encryption it is used to authenticate the identity of the sender by encrypting with a private
key and to validate the content of the message by transmitting a copy of the digital hash of
the message. Digital signatures can be used in a range of applications from online credit
card purchases to the verification of complex legal documents.
7. What is single-key cryptography?
   Single-key cryptography is the basis for classic encryption. In the past, the encryption
systems used a single secret key for encoding and decoding information. However, singlekey encryption systems face the problem of making the single key known to the message recipient. In electronic commerce, single-key systems are effective for secure
communication between fixed devices such as ATM machines and servers. However,
single-key cryptography does not work well on the web.
8. What is public key cryptography?
 Public-key cryptography enables secure communication between parties without
the need to exchange a secret key. Public-key cryptography uses a complex mathematical
formula to generate two separate but related keys, one open to public and the other private,
known only to one individual. Encrypting with a public key ensures confidentiality. It is the
basis for privacy, authentication, data integrity, and non repudiation.
9. What are the xml security technologies?
 The W3C is driving three XML security technologies:
* XML Digital Signature
* XML Encryption
* XML key Management Services
10. Write the steps for XML Encryption?
1. Selecting the XML to be encrypted.
2. Converting to canonical form if using entities or namespaces.
3. Encrypting the resulting canonical form using public-key encryption.
4. Sending the encrypted XML to the intended recipient.
11. What is OFX?
 The OFX specification is an XML-based language that enables brokerage
clients to download account information directly into their accounting or tax-preparation
software. OFX also supports the exchange of financial information among financial service
companies, their technology out sources and consumers using web an PC based software. 
The focus of OFX XML vocabulary is on data exchange, not on data storage. 
12. What is HR-XML?
 HR-XML defines a common vocabulary for storing human resources data. It is
a nonprofit consortium dedicated to enabling an XML-based e-commerce and  human
resources data interchange format.
13. What is OASIS?
 The Organization for Advancement of Structured Information
Standards(OASIS) is a non profit international consortium that creates interoperable
industry specifications based on public XML and SGML standards. OASIS is an
organization that tracks and promotes XML standards. It maintains directories of industryspecific vocabularies. 14. Explain about SVG?
SVG is an alternative to delivering GIF or JPEG images to browsers. SVG is a
Recommendation that defines an XML grammar for creating vector-based 2D Graphics for
the Web and other applications Because SVG is defined as an XML grammar, SVG
graphics can easily be generated dynamically on the Web Server using standard XML tools
and delivered with a style sheet to a browser for rendering.
15. What is SMIL?
 SMIL is a broad-based effort to use XML instructions for the creation of webbased interactive multimedia presentations. SMIL provides an XML alternative to
technologies such as Flash or JavaScript that are widely used to control animation in