**EE2354 MODERN CONTROL SYSTEMS**

**UNIT – I**

**STATE SPACE ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS TIME SYSTEMS**

**PART – A**

**1. What are the drawbacks in transfer function model analysis?**

**2. What is State and state variable?**

**3. What are the advantages of state space analysis?**

**4. What is a state vector ?**

**5. Write the state model of nth order system?**

**6. The state model of a linear time invariant system is given by**

**7. What is State diagram?**

**8. Draw the block diagram representation of state Model ?**

**9. What are the advantages of state space modeling using physical variable?**

**10. What are phase variables?**

**11. Write the properties of state transition matrix.**

**12. Write the solution of homogeneous state equations.?**

**13.Write the solution of non- homogeneous state equations.?**

**14.What are eigen values and eigen vectors?**

**15.Write any two properties of eigenvalues.**

**16.What is similarity transformation?**

**17.Define controllability and observability.**

**18.What is pole placement by state feed back?**

**19. What is state observer?**

**20.What is the need for state observer?**

**21.Derive the transfer function of the following state model.**

**22.What are the possible state assignment for the following electrical system?**

**23.What is canonical form of state model?**

**24.What is meant by diagonalization?**

**PART – B**

**1. (i) Define controllability and observability .Explain both of them with the help of Kalman’s test. (8)**

**(ii)Determine controllability and observability of the system described by**

**2. (a)Clearly explain the limitations of the classical control method. Define state, state variables and state space. (8)**

**(b)Develop the state model of linear system and draw the block diagram of state model . (8)**

**3. (a)State the duality between controllability and observability. (8)**

**(b)A linear dynamical time invariant system represented by x=Ax+Bu**

**4. (a)Construct a state model for a system characterized by the differential equation**

**(b)What are the advantages and disadvantages of state space analysis.(8)**

**5. (a)State and explain the observability theorem (8)**

**(ii)The state model of a system is given by x = A x+ B u, Y= cx where A= (8)**

**6. (8)**

**(ii) What are the requirements of a good physiological transducer and explain**

**the operation of any two types of physiological transducers with relevant**

**sketches? (8)**

**7. Draw the structure of a living cell of our body and explain in its constituents**

**detail. (16)**

**8. (i)Explain the working of Piezoelectric transducer as arterial pressure sensor.**

**(8)**

**(ii) Explain how Piezo electric transducer produces Ultrasonic waves. (8)**

**8.Write short notes on:**

**(i)Strain guage type chest transducer (8)**

**(ii)Transducer as respiration sensor (8)**

**UNIT – II**

**Z-TRANSFORM AND SAMPLED DATA SYSTEMS**

**PART – A**

**1. What is sampled data control system?**

**2. Explain the terms sampling and sampler.**

**3. What is meant by quantization?**

**4. State (shanon’s )sampling theorem**

**5. What is zero order hold ?.**

**6. What is region of convergence?**

**7. Define Z-transform of unit step signal?**

**8. Write any two properties of discrete convolution.**

**9. What is pulse transfer function?**

**10. What are the methods available for the stability analysis of sampled data**

**control systems.?**

**11. What is bilinear transformation?**

**PART - B**

**1. (i)solve the following difference equation**

**2 y(k) – 2 y(k-1) + y (k-2) = r(k)**

**y (k) = 0 for k<0 and**

**r(k) = {1; k= 0,1,2**

**{0;k<0 (8)**

**(ii)check if all the roots of the following characteristics equation lie with in the**

**circle.**

**Z4–1.368Z3+0.4Z2+0.08Z+0.002=0 (8)**

**2. (i)Explain the concept of sampling process. (6)**

**(ii)Draw the frequency response of Zero-order Hold (4)**

**(iii)Explain any two theorems on Z-transform (6)**

**3. (i)Draw the buffer amplifier circuit and explain its working (8)**

**(ii)Explain the working of a Chopper amplifier (8)**

**4. Explain the working of (i)EEG Recorder (ii)EMG System (16)**

**5. Describe in detail about the clinical significance ,lead configuration, recording**

**methods and waveforms of ECG. (16)**

**6. Describe in detail about the basic components of a biomedical system?**

**(16)**

**7. What are the electrodes used in biomedical and explain the types of**

**electrodes in detail with diagrams (16)**

**8. (i)Explain any four types of surface electrodes in detail (8)**

**(ii)Describe in detail the needle-electrodes and its types (8)**

**UNIT – III**

**STATE SPACE ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS TIME SYSTEMS**

**PART – A**

**1. Write the properties of the state transition matrix of discrete time systems.**

**2. Define BSR Measurement.**

**3. How is the blood pressure measured in the indirect method.**

**4. Briefly mention the uses of gas analyzers.**

**5. What is called Respiratory rate?**

**6. What is called Cardiac Output?**

**7. Explain the principle of sphygmomanometer**

**8. What are the methods involved in direct blood pressure measurement?**

**9. What is pH Value of Arterial blood and Venous blood?**

**10. Define Apnoea.**

**11. What is the principle of working of Electromagnetic blood flow meter?**

**12. What is Spiro meter?**

**13. Define MVV, FVC, and FRC?**

**14. What are the different sounds made by the heart?**

**PART – B**

**1. Explain the concept of linear observer design and pole placement by state**

**feedback on discrete time systems. (16)**

**2. Explain with relevant equations the working and measurement produce of**

**Plethysmograph?. (16)**

**3. With suitable figures explain How pH ,Pco2 ,and Po2 are measured? (16)**

**4. i) Explain any one method of measuring blood pressure. (8)**

**ii) Explain about ESR and GSR measurements (8)**

**5. Describe in detail a method to determine Total Lung capacity (16)**

**6. Draw a circuit diagram of a pH meter and explain its working details. (16)**

**7. i) Explain the Working principle of a electromagnetic type blood flow meter. (8)**

**ii) Define Cardiac output.Discuss a technique to determine Cardiac output (8)**

**8. i) Explain the Principle of operation of an Ultrasonic blood flow meter (8)**

**ii) Expl;ain the origin of different heart sounds. (8)**

**UNIT – IV**

**NONLINEAR SYSTEMS**

**PART – A**

**1. What are linear and nonlinear systems? Give examples.**

**2. How nonlinearities are introduced in the systems?**

**3. What are the methods available for the analysis of nonlinear system?**

**4. What is the principle of X-ray machine? Give the characteristics of X- Ray radiation ?**

**5. What is the principle of Endoscopy?**

**6. Name the different types of bio-telemetry system.**

**7. Distinguish between Fluoroscopy and Radiography.**

**8. Mention the classifications of Artifact**

**9. What are the types of Thermography?**

**PART – B**

**1. Draw the block diagram of Computer tomography scanner and explain its**

**operation with emphasis on image reconstruction. (16)**

**2. What is an Endoscope? List the types of commonly available endoscopes.**

**with schematic diagram explain the working of endoscopic laser coagulator**

**(16)**

**3. Explain the working of X ray Machine? (16)**

**4. (i)Explain the different elements involved in Biotelemetry circuits. (8)**

**(ii)Explain about Patient Monitoring system (8)**

**5. Explain in detail about the basic principle of Thermography.With neat**

**diagram explain the different parts of the Thermal Imaging system. (16)**

**6. (i)Write the principle of NMR? (4)**

**(ii)Explain with block diagram the MRI (8)**

**(iii)Applications of MRI (4)**

**7. Explain the concepts of Ultrasonography and mention its types. (16)**

**UNIT – V**

**MIMO SYSTEMS**

**PART – A**

**1. What is the use of Biphasic D.C. defibrillators?**

**2. What is the principle of bubble oxygenetors.**

**3. Why do use heart – lung machine?**

**4. What is the purpose of Audiometer?**

**5. What is a pacemaker? What are the different modes of operation of Cardiac pacemakers?**

**6. What are the differences between Hemodialysis and Peritonial dialysis?**

**7. What are the requirements for a blood pump?**

**8. What is meant by dialysis?**

**9. What is ventilator?**

**10. What are the drawbacks of a.c.defibrillators?**

**PART – B**

**1. (i)Give the difference between internal and external pacemaker (8)**

**(ii)Give short note on Double square pulse defibrillator. (8)**

**2. Why do we require Heart-lung machine? Draw a block diagram of it and explain its working. (16)**

**3. Draw the block diagram of synchronized D.C.defibrillator and explain its working. (16)**

**4. List the different types of waveforms used for stimulation of Muscle and**

**nerves? Draw the block diagram of a typical Electrotherapeutic stimulator and explain. (16)**

**5. Write short notes on:**

**i) Short wave diathermy**

**ii) Microwave diathermy. (16)**

**6. Discuss different types of defibrillators with a neat sketch. (16)**

**7. Explain the process of dialysis with diagrams. How does this technique play a**

**useful role in medical field? Give a few examples and state the limitations of**

**this technique. (16)**

**8. Draw a circuit diagram of a Peripheral nerve stimulator and explain it and also**

**discuss the different types of stimulator waveforms. (16)**

**9. i) Explain the principle of working of Ventilators. (8)**

**ii) Explain about audiometers in bio-medical instrumentation. (8)**