Unit –I
                                                                                2- Marks
  1. Define software engineering.
                Software engineering is the design, development and documentation of software by applying technologies and practices from computer science, project management, engineering, application domains, interface design and other fields.
  1. Write short notes about  process.
                Software process is a framework for the tasks that are required to build high-quality softwares. A common process framework is a small number of framework activities that are applicable to all software projects, regardless of their size or complexity.
  1. Define planning.
                Planning is the task required to define resources, timelines and other project related information.
  1. State the importance of planning.
To provide a framework that enables software manager to make a reasonable estimate of resources, cost, and schedule.
Project outcomes should be bounded by 'best case' and 'worst case' scenarios.
Estimates should be updated as the project progresses.
  1. State the difference types of software applications.
  2. List out any 4 software engineering paradigms.
                Waterfall model
                Spiral model
                Incremental model
                WINWIN Spiral model
  1. Define risk. Give its types.
                A risk is a potential problem – it might happen, it might not. Risk analysis and management are a series of steps that help a software team to understand and manage uncertainity.

Types :
Project risks
Technical risks
Business risks
  1. Define cost estimation.
  2. List the task regions in the Spiral model.
                Customer communication
                Risk analysis
                Construction and release
                Customer evaluation
  1. What are the drawbacks of spiral model?
i)                    Demands considerable risk assessment expertise and relies on this expertise for success.
ii)                  If major risk is not uncovered and managed, problems will occur.
  1. What is System Engineering?
                System engineering is an interdisciplinary activity involving teams drawn from different backgrounds. System engineering teams are needed because it is unlikely that any single engineer has sufficient knowledge and understanding to consider all the implications of system design decisions.
  1. List the process maturity levels in SEIs CMM.
                Level 1 – Initial
                Level 2 – Repeatable
                Level 3 – Defined
                Level 4 – Managed
                Level 5 - Optimizing
  1. What are the steps followed in testing?
  2. What is the use of CMM?
                It defines key activities at different levels of process maturity. To determine an organization’s current state of process maturity, the SEI uses an assessment that results in a five point grading scheme.
  1. Name the Evolutionary process Models.
  2. What are the various types of traceability in software engineering?
                Features traceability table
                Dependency traceability table
                Subsystem traceability table
                Interface traceability table
  1. What are the fundamental activities of a software process?
  2. What are the umbrella activities of a software process?
-          Software  project tracking and control
-          Risk management
-          SQA
-          Formal technical reviews
-          Software configuration management
-          Reusability management
-          Document preparation
-          Measurement
  1. What is risk refinement?
  • Process of restating the risks as a set of more detailed risks that will be easier to mitigate, monitor, and manage.
  • CTC (condition-transition-consequence) format may be a good representation for the detailed risks (e.g. given that then there is a concern that (possibly) ).
  1. What is RMMM plan?
                                The RMMM plan documents all work performed as part of risk analysis and is used by the project manager. Once RMMM plan has been documented and the project has begun, risk mitigation and monitoring steps commence.

2- Marks.

  1. What is software prototyping?
                Software prototyping is a rapid software development for validating the requirements. It allows user to experiment with requirements and to see how the system supports their work.
  1. What are the methods and tools for rapid prototyping?
-          4th generation techniques
-          Reusable software components
-          Formal specification and prototyping environments
  1. What are the benefits of prototyping?
i)                    Prototype can serve as a basis for deriving system specification.
ii)                  Design quality can be improved.
iii)                System can be maintained easily.
iv)                System usability can be improved.
v)                  If any service is missing then that can be identified.
  1. What are the prototyping approaches in software process?
a)      Evolutionary prototyping
b)     Throw-away prototyping
c)      Increment
  1. What are the advantages of evolutionary prototyping?
i)        Fast delivery of the working system
ii)    Specification, design and implementation work in co-ordinated manner
  1. What are the various Rapid prototyping techniques?
i)        Executable specification languages
ii)      Very high level languages
iii)    Application generators and 4G languages.
  1. What is the use of User Interface prototyping?
i)                    User-interface management system provides basic user interface functionality such as menu selection, object display and so on.
ii)                  They are placed  between the application and the user interface and provide facilities for screen definition and dialogue specification.
  1. What are the characteristics of SRS?
                The SRS is produced at the culmination of the analysis task.
-          Introduction
-          Information description
-          Functional description
-          Behavioral description
-          Validation Criteria
-          Bibliography and Appendix
  1. What are the objectives of Analysis modeling?
i)                    To describe what the customer requires
ii)                  To establish a basis for the creation of a software design
iii)                To define a set of requirements that can be validated once the software is built.
  1. What is a state transition diagram?
                A state transition diagram is basically a collection of states and events. The events cause the system to change its state. It also represents what actions are to be taken on occurrence of particular event.
  1. What are the elements of Analysis model?
i)                    Data dictionary
ii)                  E-R Diagram
iii)                Dataflow diagram
iv)                State transition diagram
v)                  Control specification
vi)                Process specification.
  1. What are the elements of design model?
i)                    Data design
ii)                  Interface design
iii)                Architectural design
iv)                Component-level design
  1. Draw the structure of analysis model.
  2. What is cardinality in data modeling?
                Cardinality specifies how the number of occurences of one object is related to the number of occurences of another object.
  1. What does modality in data modeling indicates?
                Modality indicates whether or not a particular data object must participate in the relationship.
  1. Write any three specification principles.
-          Separate functionality from implementation
-          Establish the context in which software operates by specifying the manner in which other system components interact with software.
-          Create a cognitive model rather than a design or implementation model
  1. Differentiate between functional and behavioral description.
                Functional Modeling and Information Flow (DFD)
  • Shows the relationships of external entities, process or transforms, data items, and data stores
  • DFD's cannot show procedural detail (e.g. conditionals or loops) only the flow of data through the software
  • Refinement from one DFD level to the next should follow approximately a 1:5 ratio (this ratio will reduce as the refinement proceeds)
  • To model real-time systems, structured analysis notation must be available for time continuous data and event processing (e.g. Ward and Mellor or Hately and Pirbhai)

Behavioral Modeling (STD)
  • State transition diagrams represent the system states and events that trigger state transitions
  • STD's indicate actions (e.g. process activation) taken as a consequence of a particular event
  • A state is any observable mode of behavior
  • Hatley and Pirbhai control flow diagrams (CFD) can also be used for behavioral modeling

  1. Define requirement analysis.
                This is the first technical step in the software process. It is at this point that a general statement of software scope is refined into a concrete specification that becomes the foundation for all software engineering activities that follows.
  1. Define analysis modeling.
                The analysis model is the first technical representation of a system. Analysis modeling uses a combination of text and diagrams to represent software requirements (data, function, and behavior) in an understandable way. Building analysis models helps make it easier to uncover requirement inconsistencies and omissions.
  1. What is mean by data object? Give examples.

2- Marks
  1. Define data abstraction.
                It involves specifying a datatype or data object specifying legal operations on objects; representation and manipulation details are suppressed.
  1. Define modularity.
                The software is divided into seperately named and addressable components that are called modules. Creating such modules bring the modularity in software.
  1. What is the benefit of modular design?
                A modular design reduces complexity, facilitates change and results in easier implementation by encouraging parallel development of different parts of a system.
  1. What is a cohesive module?
                A cohesive module performs a single task within a software procedure requiring little interaction with procedures being performed in other parts of a program.
  1. What are the different types of Cohesion?
                Coincidentally cohesive
                Logically cohesive
                Temporal cohesive
                Procedural cohesive
                Communicational cohesion
                Sequential cohesion
                Informational cohesion
  1. What are the various types of coupling?
                Content coupling                          Stamp coupling
                Common coupling                       Data coupling
                Control coupling                           External coupling

  1. What are the common activities in design process?
  2. What are the benefits of horizontal partitioning?
-          Software that is easier to test
-          Software that is easier to maintain
-          Propagation of fewer side effects
-          Software that is easier to extend
  1. What is vertical partitioning?
                Vertical partitioning suggests the control and work should be disturbed top-down in program structure. It define separate branches of the module hierarchy for each major function.
  1. What are the advantages of vertical partitioning?
                Vertical partitioning structures are less likely to be susceptible to side effects when changes are made and will therefore be more maintainable.
  1. What are the various elements of data design?
  2. List the guidelines for data design.
  3. Name the commonly used architectural styles.
                Data-centered architectures
                Data-flow architectures
                Call and return architectures
                Object-oriented architectures
                Layered architectures.
  1. What is a Real time system?
                Real time system is a software system in which the current functionalities of the system are dependent upon results produced by the system and the time at which these results are produced.
  1. How an effective module design can be achieved?
-          Functional independence
-          Cohesion
-          Coupling
  1. State the importance of architecture plan.
  2. What is DFD? State the importance of DFD.
                A DFD is a graphical representation that depicts information flow and the transforms that are applied as data move from input to output.
                The DFD may be used to represent a system or software at any level of abstraction.
  1. Define software architecture.
                The software architecture of a program is the structure or structures of the system, which compromise software components, the extenally visible properties of those components, and the relationships among them.
  1. Define coupling.
                Coupling is a measure of relative intedependence among modules. The degree of coupling is lowest for data communication, higher for control communication and highest for modules that modify  other modules.
  1. Define architectural style.
                Each style describes a system category that encompasses a set of components that performs a function required by a system and how components can be integrated to and from the system.
  1. What is meant by transform mapping?
                Transform mapping is a set of design steps that allow a DFD with transform flow characteristics to be mapped into a specific architectural styles.

Unit- 4
2- Marks

  1. List the advantages of user interface design.
-          It creates a effective communication medium between a human and a computer
-          It begins with the identification of user, task and environmental requirements.
  1. Define user interface design.
  2. What are the steps are involved in user interface design?
  3. List the different design models.
  4. Write various golden rules available in user interface design.
i)                    Place the user in control
ii)                  Reduce the user’s memory load
iii)                Make the interface consistent
  1. List the various design process in User interface design.
i)                    Creation of different models of system function
ii)                  The human-and-computer-oriented tasks that are required to achieve system function
iii)                Design issues that apply at all interface designs are considered.
iv)                Tools are used to prototype and umtimately implement the design model
v)                  Result is evaluated for quality.
  1. What are the framework activities of design process?
i)                    User, task and environment analysis and modeling
ii)                  Interface design
iii)                Interface construction
iv)                Interface validation
  1. Give short notes about SCM?
  2. Define version control.
  3. What are the different Interface Design Models available?
  4. Write short notes about task analysis.
  5. What is software configuration audit?
  6. Define status reporting.
  7. What is PDL?
  8. Write two design issues in UID.
  9. What are the various built-in mechanisms available in UIDS?
  10. What are the implementation tools are available in UID?
  11. Define system response time.
  12. Define variability.

2- Marks

1.      What are the objectives of testing?
i)                    Testing is a process of executing a program with the intend of finding an error.
ii)                  A good test case is one that has high probability of finding an undiscovered error.
iii)                A successful test is one that uncovers an as-yet undiscovered error.
2.      What are the testing principles the software engineer must apply while  performing the software testing?
i)                    All test should be traceable to customer requirements.
ii)                  Tests should be planned long before testing begins.
iii)                Exhaustive testing is not possible.
iv)                To be most effective, testing should be conducted by an independent third party.
3.       What are the two levels of testing?
4.      What are the various testing activities?
                Test plan
                Test design
                Test cases
                Test procedure
                Test execution
                Test report.
5.      Write short note on black box testing.
                It enables the software to derive sets of input conditions that will fully exercise all functional requirements for a program.
                It uncovers a different class of errors than white box methods.

6.     What is equivalence partitioning?
                It is a black box testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test cases can be derived.
7.      What is a boundary value analysis?
                It is a test case design technique that complements equivalence partitioning. It leads to the selection of test cases at the “edges” of the classes.
8.     What are the reasons behind to perform white box testing?
                White box tests focus on the program control structure.
                It make use of program graphs to derive the set of linearly independent tests that will ensure coverage.
9.     What is cyclomatic complexity?
                It is a software metric that provides a quantitative measure of the logical complexity of a program. The value computed for cyclomatic complexity defines the number of independent path in the basis set of a program.
10.  How to compute the cyclomatic complexity?
                It is computed in one of 3 ways.
1.       The no. of regions of the flow graph correspond to the cyclomatic complexity
2.      Cyclomatic complexity V(G), for a flow graph G is defined as
        V(G) = E – N + 2
        E – no. of flow graph edges
        N – no. of flow graph nodes.
3.       V(G) = P + 1
        P – no. of predicate nodes.
11.  Distinguish between verification and validation.
                Verification = refers to the set of activities that ensure that software correctly implements a specific function.
                Validation = refers to a set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements.
Verification = “ Are we building the product right?”
Validation  = “ Are we building the product right?”
12.  What are the various testing strategies for conventional software?
i)                    Unit testing
ii)                  Validation testing
iii)                Integration testing
iv)                System testing
13.   Write about drivers and stubs.
14.  What are the approaches of integration testing?
-          Top down Integration
-          Bottom up testing
-          Sandwich testing or Hybrid Testing
15.  What are the advantages and disadvantages of big-bang?
16. What are the benefits of smoke testing?
                Integration risk is minimized
                The quality of the end-product is improved
                Error diagnose and correction are simplified
                Progress is easier to assess
17.  What are the conditions exists after performing validation testing?
                The function or performance characteristics conform to specification
                Derivation from specification is uncovered and a deficiency list is created.
18. Distinguish between alpha and beta testing.
                The alpha test is conducted at the developer’s site by a customer. The software is used in a natural setting with the developer “looking over the shoulder” of the user and recording errors and usage problems. Alpha tests are conducted in a controlled environment.
                The beta test is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-user of the software. Unlike alpha testing, the developer is generally not present. Therefore, the beta testing is a “live” application of the softwar in an environment that cannot be controlled by the developer.
19. What are the various types of system testing?
-          Recovery testing
-          Security testing
-          Stress testing
-          Performance testing
20.  Define debugging.
                Debugging occurs as a consequence of successful testing. Ie., when a test case uncovers an error, debugging is the process results in the removal of error.
21.  What are the common approaches in debugging?
i)                    Brute force
ii)                  Backtracking and
iii)                Cause elimination
22.  Write about the types of project plan.


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