**CS2401- COMPUTER GRAPHICS**

**UNIT 1-2D PRIMITIVES**

**PART A**

1. Define Computer Graphics.

2. Explain any 3 uses of computer graphics applications.

3. What are the advantages of DDA algorithm?

4. What are the disadvantages of DDA algorithm?

5. Define Scan-line Polygon fill algorithm.

6. What are Inside-Outside tests?

7. Define Boundary-Fill algorithm.

8. Define Flood-Fill algorithm.

9. Define attribute parameter. Give examples.

10. What is a line width? What is the command used to draw
the thickness of lines.

11. What are the three types of thick lines? Define.

12. What are the attribute commands for a line color?

13. What is color table? List the color codes.

14. What is a marker symbol and where it is used?

15. Discuss about inquiry functions.

16. Define translation and translation vector.

17. Define window and view port.

18. Define viewing transformation.

19. Give the equation for window to viewport transformation.

20. Define view up vector.

21. What is meant by clipping? Where it happens?

22. What is point clipping and what are its inequalities?

23. What is line clipping and what are their parametric
representations?

24. How is translation applied?

25. What is referred to as rotation?

26. Write down the rotation equation and rotation matrix. 4.
What is called scaling

transformation?

27. Write the matrix representation for scaling, translation
and rotation.

28. Draw the block diagram for 2D viewing transformation
pipeline.

29. Mention the equation for homogeneous transformation.

30. What is known as composition of matrix? 9

31. Write the composition transformation matrix for scaling,
translation and

Rotation.

32. Discuss about the general pivot point rotation?

33. Discuss about the general fixed point scaling.

34. Explain window, view port and window - to - view port
transformation

35. Mention the three raster functions available in graphics
packages.

36. What is known as region codes?

37. Why Cohen Sutherland line clipping is popular?

38. Mention the point clipping condition for the
liang-barsky line clipping.

39. What is called as an exterior clipping?

40. How is the region code bit values determined?

41. Why liang-barsky line clipping is more efficient than
Cohen Sutherland line

Clipping?

42. Differentiate uniform and differential scaling.

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**ART B**
1. Consider a line from (0,0) to (6,7).Using simple DDA
algorithm,rasterize thisline.

2. Consider a line from (0,0) to (6,6).Using simple DDA
algorithm,rasterize thisline.

3. Consider a line from (0,0) to (6,7).Using simple DDA
algorithm,rasterize this line.

4. Applying Bresenham’s algorithm to draw a line from (4,4)
and end point is (-3,0).

5. Plot a circle at origin having centre as (0,0) and
radius=8 using Bresenham’s

circle algorithm.

6. Plot a circle using mid point algorithm whose radius=3
and center is at (0,0).

7. The input ellipse parameters are rx=8 and ry=6.Using
midpoint ellipse

method,rasterize this ellipse.

8. Explain in detail about line attributes with neat
diagram.

9. Explain soft fill procedures.

10. Explain the three primary color used in graphics and
explain how other colors are

achieved?

11. Explain in detail about color and grey scale levels?

12. Explain color and grey scale levels.

13. Explain the area fill attributes and character
attributes.

14. Explain character attributes in detail.

15. Briefly discuss about basic transformations.

16. Explain matrix representations.

17. Discuss about composite transformations.

18. Explain about reflection and shear.

19. Explain the following transformation with the matrix
representations.Give

suitable diagram for illustration,i translation.ii
scaling.iii rotation.

20. How the rotation of an object about the pivot point is
performed?

21. How window-to-viewport coordinate transformation
happens.

22. Explain clipping with its operation in detail.

23. Explain cohen- sutherland line clipping.

24. Discuss the logical classifications of input devices.

25. Explain the details of 2d viewing transformation
pipeline.

26. Explain point, line, curve, text, exterior clipping?

**UNIT-II THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONCEPTS**

**PART A**

1. What is a parallel projection?

2. Differentiate parallel and perspective projection.

3. What are quadric surfaces?

4. Define superquadrics.

5. What are blobby objects?

6. Define the term spline curve.

7. Write about depth cueing.

8. What is viewing operation?

9. What is meant by projection?

10. What is meant by view reference coordinate systems?

11. What is projected reference point?

12. What is center of projection? What is the other name of
it?

13. Where do we use front plane and back plane?

14. What is the necessary of using near plane and far plane?

15. What is called axonometric and isometric projections?

16. Draw the three dimensional transformation pipeline.

17. Explain vanishing point and principal vanishing point.

18. Mention the classifications of visible surface detection
algorithm

19. Explain about octree method.

20. Compare cavaliar and cabinet projections.

**PART B**

1. Discuss the three-dimensional composite transformation.

2. Differentiate parallel and perspective projection.

3. What are the functions available for 3-d transformation
functions?

4. Explain the 3-d transformation for translation, rotation,
scaling?

5. Write the matrix representation for 3-d transformation?

6. Explain the pipeline for transforming a view of a
world-coordinate scene to

device coordinates.

7. Describe the different types of rotation position in 3-d?

8. Compare the parallel and perspective projections?

9. What is a 3-d projection? Explain with a neat diagram.

**UNIT-III GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING**

**PART A**

1. Discuss the properties of light.

2. Define chromaticity, complementary colors, color gamut
and primary

colors.

3. What is color model?

4. Define hue, saturation and value.

5. Explain XYZ color model.

6. Explain RGB color model.

7. Explain YIQ color model.

8. Explain CMY color model.

9. Explain HSV color model.

10. Give the procedure to convert HSV & RGB color model.

11. What is the use of chromaticity diagram?

12. What is illumination model?

13. What are the basic illumination models?

14. What is called as lightness?

15. Explain the conversion of CMY to RGB representation.

16. What is animation?

17. Define Morphing.

18. What are the steps involved in designing an animation
sequence?

19. How to draw dots using OPENGL?

20. How to draw lines using OPENGL?

21. How to draw convex polygons using OPENGL?

22. What is the command used in OPENGL to clear the screen?

23. What are the various OPENGL datatypes?

**PART B**

1. Explain about HSV Color Model.

2. Write short notes about a) YIQ Color Model. b)CMY Color
Model.

3. Explain about HLS Color Model.

4. Explain RGB color model and CMY color model.

5. Devise an algorithm for conversion between HSV and RGB
models.

6. Define animation sequences. What are the various steps
involved in animation

sequence?

7. Describe Morphing with an example.

8. What are Keyframe systems? Explain.

9. Describe the various ways in which the motions of objects
can be specified in an

animation system.

10. Explain the various primitives and attributes in OPENGL.

11. How to draw a 3-D object using OPENGL? Explain it with
an example.

**UNIT-IV RENDERING**

**PART A**

1. What is a shading model?

2. What is diffuse reflectivity?

3. Define Phong model.

4. What is flat shading?

5. What is Gouraud shading?

6. What is Fast Phong shading?

7. What is meant by Texture Mapping?

8. What are the rendering techniques for shaded images?

**PART B**

1. Describe about flat and smooth shading.

2. Write briefly about adding texture to faces and shadows
of objects.

3. Write in detail about the rendering techniques for shadow
images.

**UNIT- V FRACTALS**

**PART A**

1. What is a fractal?

2. What are the characteristics of a fractal object?

3. How to classify the fractals?

4. What are self squaring fractals?

5. What are self-Inverse fractals?

6. Define Julia set.

7. What are Mandelbrot sets?

8. What is Ray tracing?

9. What is texture mapping?

**PART A**

1. How to create image by iterated functions?

2. Describe in detail about Ray tracing methods.

3. Write in detail about Transparency.

4. Explain the various Boolean operations on objects.