Monday, January 2, 2012

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS CE2259 ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION BANK


CE1259 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 
UNIT I
STRESS STRAIN DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS
PART- A (2 Marks)
1. What is Hooke’s Law?
2. What are the Elastic Constants?
3. Define Poisson’s Ratio.
4. Define: Resilience, proof resilience and modulus of resilience.
5. Distinguish between rigid and deformable bodies.
6. Define stress and strain.
7. Define Shear stress and Shear strain.
8. Define elastic limit.
9. Define volumetric strain.
10. Define tensile stress and compressive stress.
11. Define young’s Modulus.
12. Define modulus of rigidity.
13. Define thermal stress.
PART- B (16 Marks)
1. A rod of 150 cm long and diameter 2.0cm is subjected to an axial pull of 20 KN. If the modulus of elasticity of the material of the rod is 2x 105 N/mm2 
Determine 1. Stress 2. Strain 3. the elongation of the rod (16)
2. The extension in a rectangular steel bar of length 400mm and thickness 10mm is found to 0.21mm .The bar tapers uniformly in width from 100mm to 50mm. If E for the bar is 2x 105 N/mm2 ,Determine the axial load on the bar (16)
3. A rod of 250 cm long and diameter 3.0cm is subjected to an axial pull of 30 KN. If the modulus of elasticity of the material of the rod is 2x 105 N/mm2 Determine 1. Stress 2. Strain 3. the elongation of the rod (16) 
4. Find the young’s modulus of a rod of diameter 30mm and of length 300mm which is
subjected to a tensile load of 60 KN and the extension of the rod is equal to 0.4 mm
(16)
5. The extension in a rectangular steel bar of length 400mm and thickness 3mm is found be 0.21mm .The bar tapers uniformly in width from 20mm to 60mm E for the bar is 2x 105 N/mm2 Determine the axial load on the bar. (16)
6. The ultimate stress for a hollow steel column which carries an axial load of 2Mn is 500 N/mm2 .If the external diameter of the column is 250mm, determine the internal diameter Take the factor of safety as 4.0 (16)
UNIT II
BEAMS – LOADS AND STRESSES
PART- A (2 Marks)
1. State the different types of supports.
2. What is cantilever beam?
3. Write the equation for the simple bending theory.
4. What do you mean by the point of contraflexure?
5. Define beam.
6. Define shear force and bending moment.
7. What is Shear stress diagram?
8. What is Bending moment diagram?
9. What are the types of load?
10. Write the assumption in the theory of simple bending.
11. What are the types of beams?
12. When will bending moment is maximum.
PART- B (16 Marks)
1. Three planks of each 50 x200 mm timber are built up to a symmetrical I section for a beam. The maximum shear force over the beam is 4KN. Propose an alternate rectangular section of the same material so that the maximum shear stress developed is same in both sections. Assume then width of the section to be 2/3 of the depth. (16)
2. A beam of uniform section 10 m long carries a udl of KN/m for the entire length and a concentrated load of 10 KN at right end. The beam is freely supported at the left end. Find the position of the second support so that the maximum bending moment in the beam is as minimum as possible. Also compute the maximum bending moment (16)
3. A beam of size 150 mm wide, 250 mm deep carries a uniformly distributed load of w kN/m over entire span of 4 m. A concentrated load 1 kN is acting at a distance of 1.2 m from the left support. If the bending stress at a section 1.8 m from the left support is not to exceed 3.25 N/mm2 find the load w. (16)
4. A cantilever of 2m length carries a point load of 20 KN at 0.8 m from the fixed end and another point of 5 KN at the free end. In addition, a u.d.l. of 15 KN/m is spread over the entire length of the cantilever. Draw the S.F.D, and B.M.D. (16)
5. A Simply supported beam of effective span 6 m carries three point loads of 30 KN, 25 KN and 40 KN at 1m, 3m and 4.5m respectively from the left support. Draw the SFD and BMD. Indicating values at salient points. (16)
6. A Simply supported beam of length 6 metres carries a udl of 20KN/m throughout its
length and a point of 30 KN at 2 metres from the right support. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram. Also find the position and magnitude of maximum Bending moment. (16)
7. A Simply supported beam 6 metre span carries udl of 20 KN/m for left half of span and two point loads of 25 KN end 35 KN at 4 m and 5 m from left support. Find maximum SF and BM and their location drawing SF and BM diagrams. (16)
UNIT III
TORSION
PART-A (2 Marks)
1. Define torsional rigidity of the solid circular shaft.
2. Distinguish between closed coil helical spring and open coil helical spring
3. What is meant by composite shaft?
4. What is called Twisting moment?
5. What is Polar Modulus ?
6. Define: Torsional rigidity of a shaft.
7. What do mean by strength of a shaft?
8. Write down the equation for Wahl factor.
9. Define: Torsional stiffness.
10. What are springs? Name the two important types.


PART- B (16 Marks)
1. Determine the diameter of a solid shaft which will transmit 300 KN at 250 rpm. The
maximum shear stress should not exceed 30 N/mm2 and twist should not be more than 10 in a shaft length 2m. Take modulus of rigidity = 1x 105N/mm2. (16)
2. The stiffness of the closed coil helical spring at mean diameter 20 cm is made of 3 cm diameter rod and has 16 turns. A weight of 3 KN is dropped on this spring. Find the height by which the weight should be dropped before striking the spring so that the spring may be compressed by 18 cm. Take C= 8x104 N/mm2. (16)
3. It is required to design a closed coiled helical spring which shall deflect 1mm under an axial load of 100 N at a shear stress of 90 Mpa. The spring is to be made of round wire having shear modulus of 0.8 x 105 Mpa. The mean diameter of the coil is 10 times that of the coil wire. Find the diameter and length of the wire. (16)
4. A steel shaft ABCD having a total length of 2400 mm is contributed by three different sections as follows. The portion AB is hollow having outside and inside diameters 80 mm and 50 mm respectively, BC is solid and 80 mm diameter. CD is also solid and 70 mm diameter. If the angle of twist is same for each section, determine the length of each portion and the total angle of twist. Maximum permissible shear stress is 50 Mpa and shear modulus 0.82 x 105 MPa (16)
5. The stiffness of close coiled helical spring is 1.5 N/mm of compression under a maximum load of 60 N. The maximum shear stress in the wire of the spring is 125 N/mm2. The solid length of the spring (when the coils are touching) is 50 mm. Find the diameter of coil, diameter of wire and number of coils. C = 4.5 (16)
UNIT IV
BEAM DEFLECTION
PART-A (2 Marks)
1. What are the advantages of Macaulay method over the double integration method, for finding the slope and deflections of beams?
2. State the limitations of Euler’s formula.
3. Define crippling load.
4. State Mohr’s theorem.


5. State any three assumption made in Euler’s column theory.
6. What are the different modes of failures of a column?
7. Write down the Rankine formula for columns.
8. What is effective or equivalent length of column?
9. Define Slenderness Ratio.
10. Define the terms column and strut.

PART- B (16 Marks)
1. A simply supported beam of 10 m span carries a uniformly distributed load of 1 kN/m over the entire span. Using Castigliano’s theorem, find the slope at the ends. EI = 30,000 kN/m2. (16)
2. A 2m long cantilever made of steel tube of section 150 mm external diameter and10mm thick is loaded. If E=200 GN/m2 calculate (1) The value of W so that the maximum bending stress is 150 MN/m (2) The maximum deflection for the loading (16)
3. A beam of length of 10 m is simply supported at its ends and carries two point loads of 100 KN and 60 KN at a distance of 2 m and 5 m respectively from the left support.
Calculate the deflections under each load. Find also the maximum deflection.
Take I = 18 X 108 mm4 and E = 2 X 105. (16)
4. i) A column of solid circular section, 12 cm diameter, 3.6 m long is hinged at both ends. Rankine’s constant is 1 / 1600 and c = 54 KN/cm2. Find the buckling load.
ii) If another column of the same length, end conditions and rankine constant but of
12 cm X 12 cm square cross-section, and different material, has the same buckling load, find the value of c of its material. (16)
5. A beam of length of 6 m is simply supported at its ends. It carries a uniformly distributed load of 10 KN/m as shown in figure. Determine the deflection of the beam at its mid-point and also the position and the maximum deflection. Take EI=4.5 X 108 N/mm2. (16)
6. An overhanging beam ABC is loaded as shown is figure. Determine the deflection of the beam at point C. Take I = 5 X 108 mm4 and E = 2 X 105 N/mm2. (16)


7. A cantilever of length 2 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 2.5 KN/m run for a length of 1.25 m from the fixed end and a point load of 1 KN at the free end. Find the deflection at the free end if the section is rectangular 12 cm wide and 24 cm deep and E=1 X 104 N/mm2 (16)
8. A cantilever of length 2m carries a uniformly distributed load 2 KN/m over a length of 1m from the free end, and a point load of 1 KN at the free end. Find the slope and deflection at the free end if E = 2.1 X 105 N/mm2 and I = 6.667 X 107 mm4 . (16)
9. Determine the section of a hollow C.I. cylindrical column 5 m long with ends firmly built in. The column has to carry an axial compressive load of 588.6 KN. The internal diameter of the column is 0.75 times the external diameter. Use Rankine’s constants.
a = 1 / 1600, c = 57.58 KN/cm2 and F.O.S = 6. (16)
UNIT V
ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN TWO DIMENSIONS
PART-A (2 Marks)
1. Distinguish between thick and thin cylinders.
2. Define Principal planes and principal stress.
3. Define: Thin cylinders. Name the stresses set up in a thin cylinder subjected to internal fluid pressure.
4. What is Mohr’s circle & name any the situations where it is used?
5. Define principal planes and principal stresses.
6. Draw Mohr’s Circle for given shear stress q.
7. What is the necessary condition for maximum shear stress?
8. Define Obliquity.
9. Define Strain energy and resilience.
10. Define proof resilience and modulus of resilience.
PART- B (16 Marks)
1. A Thin cylindrical shell 3 m long has 1m internal diameter and 15 mm metal thickness. Calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stresses induced and also the change in the dimensions of the shell, if it is subjected to an internal pressure of1.5 N/mm2 Take E = 2x105 N/mm2 and poison’s ratio =0.3. Also calculate change in volume. (16)
2. A closed cylindrical vessel made of steel plates 4 mm thick with plane ends, carries fluid under pressure of 3 N/mm2 The diameter of the cylinder is 25cm and length is 75 cm. Calculate the longitudinal and hoop stresses in the cylinder wall and determine the change in diameter, length and Volume of the cylinder. Take E =2.1x105 N/mm2 and 1/m = 0.286. (16)


3. A rectangular block of material is subjected to a tensile stress of 110 N/mm2 on one plane and a tensile stress of 47 N/mm2 on the plane at right angle to the former plane and a tensile stress of 47 N/mm2 on the plane at right angle to the former. Each of the above stress is accompanied by a shear stress of 63 N/mm2 Find (i) The direction and magnitude of each of the principal stress (ii) Magnitude of greatest shear stress (16)
4. At a point in a strained material, the principal stresses are100 N/mm2 (T) and 40 N/mm2 (C). Determine the resultant stress in magnitude and direction in a plane inclined at 600 to the axis of major principal stress. What is the maximum intensity of shear stress in the material at the point? (16)
5. A rectangular block of material is subjected to a tensile stress of 210 N/mm2 on one plane and a tensile stress of 28 N/mm2 on the plane at right angle to the former plane and a tensile stress of 28 N/mm2 on the plane at right angle to the former. Each of the above stress is accompanied by a shear stress of 53 N/mm2 Find (i) The direction and magnitude of each of the principal stress (ii) Magnitude of greatest shear stress (16)
6 A closed cylindrical vessel made of steel plates 5 mm thick with plane ends, carries fluid under pressure of 6 N/mm2 The diameter of the cylinder is 35cm and length is 85 cm. Calculate the longitudinal and hoop stresses in the cylinder wall and determine the change in diameter, length and Volume of the cylinder. Take E =2.1x105 N/mm2 and 1/m = 0.286.(16)
7. At a point in a strained material, the principal stresses are 200 N/mm2 (T) and 60 N/mm2 (C) Determine the direction and magnitude in a plane inclined at 600 to the axis of major principal stress. What is the maximum intensity of shear stress in the material at the point (16)
8. At a point in a strained material, the principal stresses are 100 N/mm2 (T) and 40 N/mm2 (C) Determine the direction and magnitude in a plane inclined at 600 to the axis of major principal stress. What is the maximum intensity of shear stress in the material at the point (16)


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DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION BANK


Distributed System

UNIT I
PART - A (2 marks)

1. Define distributed systems?
2. Give examples of distributed systems .
3. Write the following
(i)HTTP (ii) HTML (iii) URL
4. What are the uses of web services?
5. Define heterogeneity.
6. What are the characteristics of heterogeneity ?
7. What is the purpose of heterogeneity mobile code?
8. Why we need openness?
9. How we provide security?
10. Define scalability.
11. What are the types of transparencies?
12. Define transparencies.
13. Define System model.
14. What is the architectural model?
15. What is the fundamental model?
16. What are the difficult for treat and distributed system?
17. Define Middleware.
18. What are the different types of model?
19. Which type of network can be used by distributed system?
20. What are the different types of network?
21. Define latency.
22. What is the difference between networking and internetworking?
23. What is meant by networking?
24. What is meant by internetworking?
25. What are the different types of switching are used in computer networking?
26. Define protocol.
27. What is the function of router?
28. What is meant by internet protocol?
29. Define domain name.
30. Define mobile IP.
PART-B
1. a. Explain the Differences between intranet and internet (8)
b. Write in detail about www (8)
2. Explain the various challenges of distributed systems (16)
3. Write in detail about the characteristics of inter process communication (16)
4. a. Explain in detail about marshalling (8)
b. Explain about the networking principles. (8)
5. Describe in detail about client - server communication. (l6)
6. Write in detail about group communication. (l6)
7. Explain in detail about the various system models (16)
8. a. Describe details about architectural model? (8)
b. Describe details about functional model? (8)
9. a. Explain the various types of networks? (8)
b. What are the networking issues for distributed System? (8)
10.Explain abut the internet protocols? (16)
UNIT II
PART - A (2 marks)
1. What is meant by interprocess Communication?
2. What is the difference between RMI and RPC?
3. Define Datagram.
4. What is the use of UDP?
5. What are the methods provides by datagram socket?
6. What are the characteristic of network hidden by stream abstraction?
7. What is the use of remote object references?
8. What is meant by client server communication?
9. What is meant by group communication?
10. What is the use of RMI registry?
11. What is meant by distributed garbage collection?
12. Explain the use of Reflection in RMI?
13. Define Name spaces.
. PART-B
1. a. Explain the Communication between distributed objects (8)
b. Explain in detail about Events and Notifications (8)
2. Explain in detail about Remote Procedure call with a case study (16)
3. Describe java RMI (16)
4. Explain about the group communication (16)
5. Describe about the client server communication (16)
6. a. Explain characteristics of interprocess communication. (8)
b. Explain UDP datagram communication (8)
7. Explain the various type communications. (16)
UNIT-III

PART - A (2 marks)
1.What are core OS Components?
2. What is meant by cluster?
3. Define Thread.
4. What is meant by address space?
5. What is meant by invocation performance?
6. Difference between monolithic and micro kernels
7. What is meant by cryptography?
8. What is the use of cryptography?
9. What is meant by distributed file system?


10. What are the different types of distributed file system available?
11. Define metadata.
PART-B
1. Explain Processes and threads (16)
2. Explain Communication and invocation (16)
3. Describe Operating system architecture (16)
4. Explain the different types of cryptographic algorithm (16)
5. Explain Global States and distributed debugging (16)
6. Explain the algorithms for mutual exclusion (16)
7. a. Discuss about threads in distributed systems (8)
b. Discuss about the distributed file system. (8)
8. Explain about the file server architecture. (16)
9. Explain about the Andrew file system. (16)
UNIT-IV
PART - A (2 marks)
1. What is the Name Spaces?
2. What is the domain name system?
3. Define directory services
4. What is the Berkeley algorithm?
5. Define global State.
6. What is the election algorithm?
PART - B
1. Explain in detail about Name services (16)
2. Discuss in detail about domain name services. (16)
3. Explain the case study of Global name services. (16)
4. Explain the case study of X.500 directory services. (16)
5. Explain about the Events and process state. (16)
6. Explain about the Logical time and logical clocks. (16)
7. Write the short notes Distributed mutual exclusion and elections. (8)

UNIT-V
PART - A (2 marks)
1. Define transaction
2 Define ACID properties.
3 Define Concurrency control.
4 What is meant by nested transactions?
5 Define strict two phase locking.
6 Define deadlock.
7 Difference between validation phase and update phase
8 Define time stamp ordering.
9 Define two-phase commit protocol.
10. Define Edge chasing.
PART - B
1. Explain in detail about concurrency control in transaction. (16)
2 Discuss in detail about deadlock and locking schemes in concurrency control (16)
3 a. Explain optimistic concurrency control (8)
b. Explain in detail about comparison of methods of concurrency control (8)
4 Explain Time stamp ordering in detail (16)
5 Explain the concurrency control in distributed transactions (16)
6 Explain about distributed deadlocks (16)
7 Describe in detail about distributed deadlocks (16)

MODERN CONTROL SYSTEMS EE2354 ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION BANK


EE2354 MODERN CONTROL SYSTEMS

UNIT – I
STATE SPACE ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS TIME SYSTEMS
PART – A
1. What are the drawbacks in transfer function model analysis?
2. What is State and state variable?
3. What are the advantages of state space analysis?
4. What is a state vector ?
5. Write the state model of nth order system?
6. The state model of a linear time invariant system is given by
7. What is State diagram?
8. Draw the block diagram representation of state Model ?
9. What are the advantages of state space modeling using physical variable?
10. What are phase variables?
11. Write the properties of state transition matrix.
12. Write the solution of homogeneous state equations.?
13.Write the solution of non- homogeneous state equations.?
14.What are eigen values and eigen vectors?
15.Write any two properties of eigenvalues.
16.What is similarity transformation?
17.Define controllability and observability.
18.What is pole placement by state feed back?
19. What is state observer?
20.What is the need for state observer?
21.Derive the transfer function of the following state model.
22.What are the possible state assignment for the following electrical system?
23.What is canonical form of state model?
24.What is meant by diagonalization?
PART – B
1. (i) Define controllability and observability .Explain both of them with the help of Kalman’s test. (8)
(ii)Determine controllability and observability of the system described by
2. (a)Clearly explain the limitations of the classical control method. Define state, state variables and state space. (8)
(b)Develop the state model of linear system and draw the block diagram of state model . (8)
3. (a)State the duality between controllability and observability. (8)
(b)A linear dynamical time invariant system represented by x=Ax+Bu
4. (a)Construct a state model for a system characterized by the differential equation
(b)What are the advantages and disadvantages of state space analysis.(8)
5. (a)State and explain the observability theorem (8)
(ii)The state model of a system is given by x = A x+ B u, Y= cx where A= (8)
6. (8)
(ii) What are the requirements of a good physiological transducer and explain
the operation of any two types of physiological transducers with relevant
sketches? (8)
7. Draw the structure of a living cell of our body and explain in its constituents
detail. (16)
8. (i)Explain the working of Piezoelectric transducer as arterial pressure sensor.
(8)
(ii) Explain how Piezo electric transducer produces Ultrasonic waves. (8)
8.Write short notes on:
(i)Strain guage type chest transducer (8)
(ii)Transducer as respiration sensor (8)
UNIT – II
Z-TRANSFORM AND SAMPLED DATA SYSTEMS
PART – A
1. What is sampled data control system?
2. Explain the terms sampling and sampler.
3. What is meant by quantization?
4. State (shanon’s )sampling theorem
5. What is zero order hold ?.
6. What is region of convergence?
7. Define Z-transform of unit step signal?
8. Write any two properties of discrete convolution.
9. What is pulse transfer function?
10. What are the methods available for the stability analysis of sampled data
control systems.?
11. What is bilinear transformation?
PART - B
1. (i)solve the following difference equation
2 y(k) – 2 y(k-1) + y (k-2) = r(k)
y (k) = 0 for k<0 and
r(k) = {1; k= 0,1,2
{0;k<0 (8)
(ii)check if all the roots of the following characteristics equation lie with in the
circle.
Z4–1.368Z3+0.4Z2+0.08Z+0.002=0 (8)
2. (i)Explain the concept of sampling process. (6)
(ii)Draw the frequency response of Zero-order Hold (4)
(iii)Explain any two theorems on Z-transform (6)
3. (i)Draw the buffer amplifier circuit and explain its working (8)
(ii)Explain the working of a Chopper amplifier (8)
4. Explain the working of (i)EEG Recorder (ii)EMG System (16)
5. Describe in detail about the clinical significance ,lead configuration, recording
methods and waveforms of ECG. (16)
6. Describe in detail about the basic components of a biomedical system?
(16)
7. What are the electrodes used in biomedical and explain the types of
electrodes in detail with diagrams (16)
8. (i)Explain any four types of surface electrodes in detail (8)
(ii)Describe in detail the needle-electrodes and its types (8)
UNIT – III
STATE SPACE ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS TIME SYSTEMS
PART – A
1. Write the properties of the state transition matrix of discrete time systems.
2. Define BSR Measurement.
3. How is the blood pressure measured in the indirect method.
4. Briefly mention the uses of gas analyzers.
5. What is called Respiratory rate?
6. What is called Cardiac Output?
7. Explain the principle of sphygmomanometer
8. What are the methods involved in direct blood pressure measurement?
9. What is pH Value of Arterial blood and Venous blood?
10. Define Apnoea.
11. What is the principle of working of Electromagnetic blood flow meter?
12. What is Spiro meter?


13. Define MVV, FVC, and FRC?
14. What are the different sounds made by the heart?
PART – B
1. Explain the concept of linear observer design and pole placement by state
feedback on discrete time systems. (16)
2. Explain with relevant equations the working and measurement produce of
Plethysmograph?. (16)
3. With suitable figures explain How pH ,Pco2 ,and Po2 are measured? (16)
4. i) Explain any one method of measuring blood pressure. (8)
ii) Explain about ESR and GSR measurements (8)
5. Describe in detail a method to determine Total Lung capacity (16)
6. Draw a circuit diagram of a pH meter and explain its working details. (16)
7. i) Explain the Working principle of a electromagnetic type blood flow meter. (8)
ii) Define Cardiac output.Discuss a technique to determine Cardiac output (8)
8. i) Explain the Principle of operation of an Ultrasonic blood flow meter (8)
ii) Expl;ain the origin of different heart sounds. (8)
UNIT – IV
NONLINEAR SYSTEMS
PART – A
1. What are linear and nonlinear systems? Give examples.
2. How nonlinearities are introduced in the systems?
3. What are the methods available for the analysis of nonlinear system?
4. What is the principle of X-ray machine? Give the characteristics of X- Ray radiation ?
5. What is the principle of Endoscopy?
6. Name the different types of bio-telemetry system.
7. Distinguish between Fluoroscopy and Radiography.
8. Mention the classifications of Artifact
9. What are the types of Thermography?
PART – B
1. Draw the block diagram of Computer tomography scanner and explain its
operation with emphasis on image reconstruction. (16)
2. What is an Endoscope? List the types of commonly available endoscopes.
with schematic diagram explain the working of endoscopic laser coagulator
(16)
3. Explain the working of X ray Machine? (16)
4. (i)Explain the different elements involved in Biotelemetry circuits. (8)
(ii)Explain about Patient Monitoring system (8)
5. Explain in detail about the basic principle of Thermography.With neat
diagram explain the different parts of the Thermal Imaging system. (16)
6. (i)Write the principle of NMR? (4)
(ii)Explain with block diagram the MRI (8)
(iii)Applications of MRI (4)
7. Explain the concepts of Ultrasonography and mention its types. (16)
UNIT – V
MIMO SYSTEMS
PART – A
1. What is the use of Biphasic D.C. defibrillators?
2. What is the principle of bubble oxygenetors.
3. Why do use heart – lung machine?
4. What is the purpose of Audiometer?
5. What is a pacemaker? What are the different modes of operation of Cardiac pacemakers?
6. What are the differences between Hemodialysis and Peritonial dialysis?
7. What are the requirements for a blood pump?
8. What is meant by dialysis?
9. What is ventilator?
10. What are the drawbacks of a.c.defibrillators?


PART – B

1. (i)Give the difference between internal and external pacemaker (8)
(ii)Give short note on Double square pulse defibrillator. (8)
2. Why do we require Heart-lung machine? Draw a block diagram of it and explain its working. (16)
3. Draw the block diagram of synchronized D.C.defibrillator and explain its working. (16)
4. List the different types of waveforms used for stimulation of Muscle and
nerves? Draw the block diagram of a typical Electrotherapeutic stimulator and explain. (16)
5. Write short notes on:
i) Short wave diathermy
ii) Microwave diathermy. (16)
6. Discuss different types of defibrillators with a neat sketch. (16)
7. Explain the process of dialysis with diagrams. How does this technique play a
useful role in medical field? Give a few examples and state the limitations of
this technique. (16)
8. Draw a circuit diagram of a Peripheral nerve stimulator and explain it and also
discuss the different types of stimulator waveforms. (16)
9. i) Explain the principle of working of Ventilators. (8)
ii) Explain about audiometers in bio-medical instrumentation. (8)