Tuesday, April 3, 2012

EE2402 HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION BANK


Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
EE2402 – High Voltage Engineering
PART-A (2 marks)
  1. Draw and define impulse voltage wave shape and mention it’s specification as per standards.
  2. What are the causes of over voltages?
  3. Mention the different kinds of over voltages.
  4. What are temporary over voltage?
  5. What is lightning phenomenon?
  6. What is Isokeraunic level?
  7. What are meant by switching surges? Mention the approximate magnitude of switching surges and their frequency.
  8. State the different methods of protection against over voltages.
  9. What is a surge diverter?
  10. What is a ground wire or shielded wire?
  11. Define tower footing resistance.
  12. Define shielding angle.
  13. Draw the V-I characteristics of non linear resistor lightning arrester.
  14. What are meant by ground rods and counter poise wires?
  15. Compare switching surges and lightning
  16. Write the expression for voltage developed during lightning.
  17. Why a simple spark gap cannot offer full protection against over voltages.
  18. Define uniform and non uniform fields and give example for each.
  19. What is meant by corona discharges?
  20. Define the following as applied to disruptive discharges.
(a)   Flash over
(b)   Spark over
  1. What is meant by Townsend’s discharge? Explain it’s main features.
  2.  Define Paschen’s Law.
  3. What are pure liquid dielectrics?
  4. Define Creepage Distance.
  5. What do you mean by Disruptive Discharge Voltage?
  6. What are the demerits of synthetic testing of circuit breakers?
  7. What are the different tests done on insulators?
  8. How radio frequency noise is measured?
  9. What is insulation coordination?
  10. Define 50 % and 100% flash over voltage.
  11. Differentiate type test and routine test.


PART-B (16 marks)
  1. Discuss the mechanism of lightning strokes and over voltages on transmission lines.     (16)                                                                                    
  2. Discuss the different theories of charge formation of thunder clouds.                              (16)
  3. (a) Give the mathematical models for lightning discharges and explain them                    (8)
  4. (b) Explain the different characteristics of the lightning strokes                                         (8)
5. (a)  Explain various methods to control switching over voltages.                                       (10)
  1. (b)  Give a brief note on protection of transmission lines using surge diverters.                 (6)
  2. Write short notes on:
(a) Rod gaps used as protective devices                                                                                (8)
(b) Ground wires for protection of overhead lines.                                                               (8)                                  
  1. State the criteria for sparking potential and hence obtain the relation between sparking
potential and (pd) values (Paschen’s Law).Discuss on the nature of variations of sparking
potential with (pd) values.                                                                                                  (16)
9.       (a) Explain why electro negative gases have high breakdown stress.                                   6)
  1. (b) Discuss meek’s theory of breakdown in gases under non uniform fields.                    10)
  2. (a) Explain the Streamer Theory of breakdown in air at atmospheric pressure.                  (8)
  3. (b)  Explain about time lag in gas breakdown.                                                                     (8)
(a)   What electrical avalanche? How do avalanche give rise to an electrical breakdown in case of Townsend’s type of discharge.                                                               12)
  1. (b) How vacuum breakdown occurs according to particle exchange mechanism?             (4)
  2. Discuss the various mechanisms of vacuum breakdown.                                                  (16)
  3. Explain various theories which explains breakdown in commercial liquid dielectrics.     (16)
  4. (a) Explain the Streamer Theory of breakdown in air at atmospheric pressure.                  (8)
  5. (b)  Explain about time lag in gas breakdown.                                                                     (8)
    1. Draw a neat diagram of high voltage Schering bridge and describe various features of the bridge.
    2. Explain, with schematic diagram any one method of measuring RIV of transmission line.
  6. Explain, with neat diagram the impulse testing of transformer. What is procedure adopted in location of fault?
    1. What are the impulse tests done on insulators? Explain.
    2. Explain the synthetic of circuit breaker.
  7. What are the different tests conducted on cables.
  8. Explain insulation coordination?
  9. What are the different tests conducted on surge diverter. Explain.
  10. What are the different tests conducted on bushings. Explain.











EC2043 WIRELESS NETWORKS ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION BANK


EC2043 WIRELESS NETWORKS

UNIT I
PHYSICAL AND WIRELESS MAC LAYER ALTERNATIVES
                                                      PART – A (2 Marks)     
1. Name five design consideration in selecting a modulation scheme for a wireless networks.
2. Why is out of band of radiation an important issue in designing modulation scheme?
3. Why is PPM used with IR communication instead of PAM?
4. Name four space diversity techniques.
5. What are the advantages of high efficiency voice band modems?
6. Draw the structure of DFE.
7. Define ACI.
8. What are the types of diversity?
9. Draw the structure of adaptive MLSE receiver.
10. Draw the structure of linear transversal equalizer.
11. In an OFDM modem with 48 channels, each channel uses 16 QAM modulations. if the overall
transmission rate is 10 Mbps. What is the symbol transmission rate per channel?
12. What are the sectored antennas? How they are useful in combating multipath?
13. What are the popular access schemes for data networks? Classify them.
14. What is the difference between the access technique of IEEE802.3 and IEEE802.11?
15. What is the difference between performance evaluations of voice oriented fixed assignment and
data oriented random access?
16. What is the difficulty of implementing CSMA? CD in a wireless environment?
17. Explain about CSMA.
18. Explain about hidden terminal problem.
19. Explain about capture effect.
20. Write down the formula for Nidle.
21. Sketch the operation of CSMA protocol.
22. Define:
a. persistent
b. non persistent
c. 1-persistent
d. p-persistent
23. Draw the frame structure of movable boundary frame polling system
24. Difference between ALOHA and slotted ALOHA.
25. Explain about space diversity.
PART B
1. Explain the following: (16)
a. bandwidth efficiency
b. power efficiency
c. out of band of radiation
d. UWB pulse transmission
2. What is OFDM? Explain about multicarrier, multisymbol and multirate OFDM. (16)
3. Why we are going for diversity? Explain the time diversity using rake receiver and
traditional modems & equalizers. (16)
4. Explain about space and frequency diversity. ` (16)
5. Explain about random access method? (16)
6. Explain about integration of voice traffic. (16)
UNIT II
WIRELESS NETWORK PLANNING AND OPERATION
PART –A (2 Marks)
1. Name any three advantages of an infrastructure topology over an adhoc network
topology.
2. Compare single hop and multihop networks topologies.
3. Name the five different cell types in the cellular hierarchy and compare them in terms of
coverage area antenna site.
4. Why is hexagonal cell shape preferred over square or triangular cell shape to represent
the cellular architecture?
5. Name five architecture methods that are used to increase the capacity of an analog
cellular system without increasing the number of antenna sites.
6. Explain the following:
a. Cell splitting
b. Cell sectoring
c. Cell partitioning
7. Explain how smart antennas can improve the capacity of cellular network.
8. What are channel allocation techniques?
9. Explain the terms FCA, DCA, HCA.
10. Compare FCA and DCA.
11. Define channel borrowing technique and give its types.
12. Define mobility management.
13. Name the two important issues in mobility management.
14. What is location management? What are the three components?
15. Name three paging mechanisms.
16. Explain about paging.
17. Explain three traditional handoff techniques?
18. Difference between mobile controlled and mobile assisted hand off?
19. Difference between centralized and distributed power control.
20. What are the two steps in hand off?
21. What are the privacy and authentication requirements of wireless networks?
22. How are public key and secret key algorithms different?
23. Explain the importance of key sizes in the security of an encryption algorithm?
24. What is challenge response scheme?
25. What are the parts in location management?
PART-B
1. Explain the two fundamental types topologies used in the wireless networks? (16)
2. Comparison of adhoc and infrastructure topologies. (16 )
3. Explain the concept of cellular topology and cell fundamentals with examples. (16)
4. Explain in detail about capacity expansion technique. (16)
5. Explain in detail about channel allocation technique. (16)
6. Comparison of FCA and DCA. (16)
7. What are the parts available in location management and explain in detail. (16)
8. What is meant by handoff? What are the issues available in hand off management
explains with neat diagram. (16)
9. Discuss about power control mechanism with example. (16)
10. Explain in detail about security in wireless networks. (16)                         

UNIT III - WIRELESS WAN
                                                      PART –A ( 2 Marks)            
1. Difference between registration and call establishment?
2. What are the reasons to perform handoff?
3. Difference between network decided and mobile assisted handovers?
4. Difference between logical and physical channel?
5. Name five most important logical channels in GSM
6. What are the stack layers?
7. Three types of bursts.
8. Three types of control channels.
9. What is IS-95?
10. What are the bandwidth and chip rates used in WCDMA and how they compare with
cdmaone?
11. How many physical channels are available in each IS-95 carrier? What type of coding
separates these channels from one another?
12. Name the forward and reverse channels used in IS-95?
13. Difference between Walsh codes and cdmaone forward and reverse channels?
14. What are the bit rates of the data services supported by IS-95?
15. Why is power control important in CDMA?
16. What forward channels are involved in IS-95 for power control?
17. Why are several pilot channels monitored in IS95? When does a pilot channels from a
base station move from an active set to a candidate set?
18. Sketch handoff threshold in WCDMA?
19. What are the new elements added to the GSM infrastructure to support GPRS?
20. How does GPRS provides a variety of data rates?
21. Name the connectionless and connection oriented services provided by the GPRS.
22. What is GPRS-136? How does it differ from GPRS?
23. What is the importance of the framing structure in GSM?
24. What is the difference between registration and call establishment?
25. Name three sub systems in the GSM architecture.
26. What are VLR and HLR and why we need them?
PART –B
1. What are the mechanisms available to support mobile environment? (16)
2. Draw the protocol architecture of GSM and explain in detail. (16)
3. Explain in detail about IS-95 CDMA forward channels? (16)
4. Explain in detail about IS-95 CDMA reverse channels? (16)
5. Explain in detail about IMT-2000. (16)
6. What is GPRS? Explain in detail about GPRS. (16)
7. Explain in detail about SMS and mobile application protocol. (16)
UNIT IV - WIRELESS LAN
PART –A ( 2 Marks)
1. What is the difference between nomadic access and adhoc networking?
2. Name three categories of unlicensed bands used in U.S and compare them in terms of
size of the available band coverage.
3. Explain the difference between WLAN and PAN.
4. Name the five major challenges for implementation of wireless LANs compare with one
another.
5. Explain the difference between wireless inter-LAN bridges and WLANs
6. What are the differences between IEEE802.11 and HIPERLAN standards?
7. Compare WCAN and WHAN.
8. Why does the military shoe how much of interest in wireless ATM approach?
9. Name three military projects related to broadband wireless local access.
10. Name different alternatives for internet access to the home and different medium for
home distribution.
11. What are the difference between LAN and HAN?
12. Explain the specific challenges for the design of HAN.
13. Name the classes of home appliances that are emerging in the networking market.
14. Compare wireless and wired solution for home access and in home distribution.
15. Name four major transmission technique considered for WLAN standards and give the
standard activity associated with each of them.
16. Compare OFDM and spread spectrum technology for the WLAN application.
17. Give the physical specification summary of the DSSS and FHSS used by the IEEE
802.11.
18. Difference between probe and beacon signal in 802.11
19. Difference between power control in 802.11 and power control in cellular system.
20. Why an AP in the 802.11 also acts as a bridge.
21. What are the responsibilities of the MAC management sub layer in 802.11?
22. 22. What are the difference between the 802.11a and HIPERLAN-2?
23. Compare packet form ATM and WATM.
24. What are the similarities between HIPERLAN -1 and HIPERLAN-2
25. What are the purpose of scrambler and interleaver in the HIPERLAN-2 modem?
26. What is the purpose of guard time?
27. Similarities between the Medium access control of the HIPERLAN-2 and DECT.
28. How many transport channels and logical channels are implemented in the HIPERLAN-
2 DLC layer?
29. Why do we need HAN?
30. Explain briefly about HYPERLAN-2.
PART –B
1. What are the layers available in HYPERLAN-2? explain each layer with suitable
diagram. (16)
2. What is HYPERLAN? Explain in detail about HYPERLAN-1. (16)
3. Explain in detail about wireless ATM. (16)
4. Explain in detail about overview, reference architecture, layered architecture of
IEEE802.11? (16)
5. Explain in detail about three choices of PHY layer. (16)
6. Explain in detail about MAC sub layer with suitable diagram. (16)
7. What is HAN? Explain about HAN technologies? (16)
8. Explain the following:
a. Overview of the LAN industry (8)
b. Evolution of the WLAN industry (8)
UNIT-V
WPAN AND GEOLOCATION SYSTEMS
PART –A ( 2 Marks)
1. What is home RF?
2. What is the IEEE 802.15 and what is the relation to the Bluetooth and homeRF?
3. Name the four states that a Bluetooth terminal.
4. Name the three classes of application that are considered for Bluetooth technology?
5. Difference between 802.11 and 802.15.
6. How many different voice services does Bluetooth support?
7. How many different symmetric and asymmetric data services does Bluetooth support?
8. What is the maximum data rate of an overlay bluetooth network?
9. Difference between the implementation of paging and inquiry algorithms in bluetooth?
10. What are the two standard MAC protocols that are combined in the home RF SWAP
protocol?
11. Difference between GPS, wireless cellular assisted GPS, and indoor geolocation
systems.
12. Differentiate between remote and self positioning systems.
13. Compare mobile centric and network centric geolocation technique in terms of
complexity and accuracy.
14. Give some examples of location dependent services.
15. What are the E-911 services and who has mandated these services?
16. What are the basic elements of a wireless geolocation system?
17. Name three major metrics used for location finding.
18. Why are AOA techniques not popular in indoor geolocation applications?
19. Why is RSS not a very good measure of the distance between a transmitter and a
receiver?
20. What is Bluetooth?
PART –B
1. Explain in detail about geolocation standards for E.911 services (16)
2. What are the technologies available for wireless geo location? And explain (16)
3. What is geolocation? And give the architecture of geolocation. (16)
4. Explain about bluetooth technology. (16)
5. Explain in detail about interface between Bluetooth and 802.11. (16)
6. Explain about IEEE 802.5 WPAN and home RF. (16)
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IC2403 NEURAL NETWORKS AND FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION BANK AND 2 MARKS



IC2403 –NEURAL NETWORKS AND FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL
QUESTION BANK

Unit 1 (Architectures)

1. Define artificial neural network (ANN)

Artificial Neural Network is information processing devices with the capability of performing computations similar to human brain or biological neural network.

2. List out the differences between artificial neural network and biological network

Artificial Neural Network:
i.                     Speed: Slow in processing information. (Processing time in the range of nanoseconds.
ii.                    Processing: Sequential or step by step processing.
iii.                  Size and compatibility: Simple but cannot be used for complex pattern recognition.
Biological network:
i.                     Speed: faster in processing information.( processing time in the range of milliseconds)
ii.                    Processing: Parallel processing.
iii.                  Size and compatibility: It can be used for complex pattern.

3. Define weight.
Weight is information used by the neural net to solve a problem.

4. Define Activation Function.
The activation function is used to calculate the output response of a neuron.

5. What are the classifications of activation function?
1.                   Identity function
2.                   Binary Step function
3.                   Sigmoidal function

6. What are the types of Sigmoidal Function?
1.       Binary Sigmoidal Function
2.       Bipolar Sigmoidal Function

7. What are the applications of neural networks?
·         Used in medical field
·         Used in telephone communication
·         Business applications


8. Define bias.
Bias acts exactly as a weight on a connection from a unit whose activation is always one.

9. What is the function of Synaptic gap?
Synaptic gap is used to convert the electrical signals to some chemicals and these chemicals are again converted to electrical signals.

10. Define threshold.
The threshold ‘_’ is a factor which is used in calculating the activations of the given net.

11. What are Dendrites?
Dendrites are used to receive signals from other neurons.

12. Define Training.
The process of modifying the weights in the connections between network layers with the objective of obtaining the expected output is called training.

13. What are the different types of training?
1.       Supervised training
2.       Unsupervised training
3.       Reinforcement training

14. Define Learning.
Learning is the process by which the free parameters of a neural network get adapted through a process of stimulation by the environment in which the network is embedded.

15. What are the different types of Learning rules?
1.       Hebbian Learning rule
2.       Perceptron Learning rule
3.       Delta Learning rule
4.       Competitive Learning rule
5.       Outstar Learning rule
6.       Boltzman Learning rule
7.       Memory Learning rule

16. Define Back Propagation Network (BPN).
It is a multi-layer forward network used extend gradient-descent waste deltalearning rule.

17. What are merits and demerits of Back Propagation Algorithm?
Merits:
1.       The mathematical formula present here can be applied to any network and does not require any special mention of the features of the function to be learnt.
2.       The computing time is reduced if the weights chosen are small at the beginning.
Demerits:
1.       The number of learning steps may be high, and also the learning phase has intensive calculations.
2.       The training may cause temporal instability to the system.

18. What are the applications of back propagation algorithm?
1.       Optical character recognition
2.       Image compression
3.       Data compression
4.       Control problems

19. What are the four main steps in back propagation algorithm?
1.       Initialization of weights
2.       Feed forward function
3.       Back propagation
4.       Termination

20. Define supervised training.
It is the process of providing the network with a series of sample inputs and comparing the output with the expected responses.


UNIT-2

NEURAL NETWORKS FOR CONTROL

1) Define feedback networks?
The networks, which can return back the output to the input, thereby giving rise to an iteration process, are defined as feedback networks.

1) Give some examples of feedback networks
Some examples of feedback networks are Simulated annealing, Boltzmann machine, Hop field net, etc.

2) What is the main purpose of Hop field network?
A Hop field network is able to recognize unclear pictures correctly. However, only one picture can be stored at a time.

3) Define discrete Hop field net
The discrete Hop field net is a fully interconnected neural net with each unit connected to every other unit. The net has symmetric weights with no self-connections
i.e. all the diagonal elements of the weight matrix of a Hop field net are zero

4) List two difference between Hop field and iterative auto associative net.
The two mail differences between Hop field and iterative auto associative net are that, in the Hop field net,
• Only one unit updates its activation at a time, and,
• Each unit continues to receive an external signal in addition to the signal from the other units in the net.

5) What is energy function or Lyapunov function?
The asynchronous discrete time updating of the units allows a function known as energy function or Lyapunov function. This function proves that the net will converge to a stable set of activations.

6) Write the energy function for discrete Hop field network.
The energy function for the discrete Hop field network is given by
E= -0.5∑(i#j) ∑ (j) yi yj wij - ∑ xi yi + ∑ (i) i yi.

7) What is continuous Hop field net?
The continuous Hop field net is a modified form of discrete Hop field net. It uses continuous valued output functions, which can be used either for associative memory problems or constrained optimization problems.

8) Write the energy function of continuous Hop field network.
The energy function continuous Hop field network is,
E = 0.5 ∑ (i=1 to m) ∑ (j=1 to m) wij vij vj + ∑(i=1 to m) i vi.

9) What is artificial neural network?
Artificial neural networks are non-linear information (signal) processing devices, which are built from interconnected elementary processing devices called neurons.

10) What are the basic building blocks of artificial neural network?
The basic building blocks of the artificial neural network are:
1.       Network architecture.
2.       Setting the weights.
3.       Activation function.

11) State the purpose of process identification
The purpose of process identification is to find the response y of the plant for the given set of inputs x.

12) List the types of plant identification.
A.       Forward plant identification.
B.       Plant reverse identification.

13) State some disadvantages of forward plant identification
Forward plant identification is always feasible; however, it does not immediately allow for construction of the plant controller.

14) What is the goal of inverted pendulum?
The goal of inverted pendulum task is to apply a sequence of right and left forces of fixed magnitude such that the pendulum is balanced, and the cart does not hit the edge of the track.



15) State the property of inverted pendulum neurocontroller.
This technique is the simple and synergistic approach, which examines the merger of visual image acquisition, training, and neurocontrol.

16) What are the variables, which describe the state of the system?
Four variables describe the state of the system: the horizontal position and the velocity of the cart (x, v), the angle between the pendulum and vertical, and the angular velocity of the falling pendulum (q, w).

17) State the force required to stabilize the system to be controlled in inverted pendulum.
The force required to stabilize the system is a function of four state variables
x, v, q, and w as follows,
F(t) = ax(t) + bdx(t)/dt + c t) - d (t).
Where, dx (t)/dt = x (t), d(t)= w(t) and a, b c and d are constant coefficients.

18) Define neural network
The neural network can also be defined as an inter connection of neurons, such that neuron outputs are connected, through weights, to all other neurons including themselves; both lag-free and delay connections are allowed.

19) State the need for training the neural network
The observer who would measure the cart position and angles of pendulum at every instant is replaced by the input of the visual image of the cart and the pendulum.
Since it is essential to provide the controller with the present and most recent position and angle data, the present and most recent images arranged in pairs have been used to train the network.

20) How ANN resembles brain?
The ANN resembles the brain in two respects:
1) Knowledge is acquired by the network through a learning process, and,
2) Inter-neuron connection strengths known as synaptic weights are used to store the knowledge. 

UNIT -3

CLASSICAL SETS AND FUZZY SETS

1. What are classical sets?
Classical sets are objects that satisfy precise properties of membership. It has a crisp set boundary

2. List the operations on classical sets?
Union AUB= {x |x € A or x € B}
Intersection  AB= {x |x € A and x € B}
Complement A= {x | x € A, x € X}
Difference A | B= {x |x € A and x € B}



3. List the properties of crisp sets?
Commutativity    AUB=BUA
AB= B_A
Associativity                   AU (BUC) = (AUB) UC
A (BC) = (AB) C
Distributivity                  AU (BC) = (AUB) (AUC)
A (BUC) = (AB) U (AC)
Idempotency                 AUA =A
AA=A
Identity              AUØ=A
AX=A
AØ=Ø
AUX=X
Transitivity                     If A ≤ B ≤ C, then A ≤ C
Involution                      A=A

4. State the excluded middle laws and De Morgan’s laws for classical sets.
Excluded Middle laws:
Law of excluded middle AUA=X
Law of contradiction AA=Ø
De Morgan’s Laws:
AB = AUB
AB = AB

5. What are Fuzzy sets?
Sets containing elements that have varying degrees of membership in the set are called fuzzy sets.

6. List the Fuzzy set operations?
Union                μAUB(x) = μA(x) μB(x)
Intersection       μAB(x) = μA(x) μB(x)
Complement      μA (x) =1-μA(x)

7. List the properties of fuzzy sets?
Commutativity AUB=BUA
AB= BA
Associativity       AU (BUC) = (AUB) UC
A (BC) = (AB) C
Distributivity      AU (BC) = (AUB) (AUC)
A (BUC)=(AB)U(AC)
Idempotency     AUA =A
AA=A
Identity AUØ=A
AX=A
AØ=Ø
AUX=X
Transitivity If A≤ B≤ C, then A≤ C
Involution A=A

8. Give De Morgan’s law and Excluded middle laws for fuzzy sets?
De Morgan’s law:           AUB= A B
AB= A B
Excluded middle laws: AUA X
AA Ø

9. What you mean by Universal set?
Set of all elements in the universe is termed as Universal set
X={x1, x2, x3…….}

10. Define Cardinality number.
Number of elements in the universe of discourse is called Cardinality number.
It is denoted by nx

11. Give the expression for cardinality of power set.
P=2nx
Cardinality of power set is infinity

12. Differentiate classical and fuzzy set

Classical Set
Fuzzy Set
They have Objects that satisfy precise properties of membership
They have the objects that satisfy imprecise properties of membership

13. Define fuzzification.
Fuzzification is the process of converting a crisp quantity into a fuzzy quantity.

14. What are fuzzy relations?
Fuzzy relations R is a mapping from Cartesian space X ×Y to the unit interval[0,1] where the strength of mapping is expressed by the membership function of the relation for ordered pairs from the two universal or μR(x,y)

15. List the operations on fuzzy relations.
Union μRUS (x,y)=max(μR(x,y), μS(x,y))
Intersection μRS (x,y)=min(μR(x,y), μS(x,y))
Complement μR(x,y)= 1- μR(x,y)
Containment R S=> μR(x,y) _μS(x,y)
16. List the properties of fuzzy relations.
RU R _ E
R_R _ O

17. Define Defuzzification.
Defuzzification is the conversion of a fuzzy quantity into crisp quantity.

18 Differentiate fuzzification and defuzzification?
Fuzzification Defuzzification
It is the conversion of crisp quantity into
fuzzy quantity.
It is the conversion of a fuzzy quantity
into crisp quantity.

19 List the defuzzification methods.
_ Max – membership principle
_ Centroid methods
_ Weighted average methods
Classical set Fuzzy set
They have objects that satisfy precise
properties of membership.
They have the objects that satisfy imprecise
properties of membership.
_ Mean-max membership
_ Center of sums
_ Center of largest area
_ First(or last) of maxima

20 Explain the defuzzification method of center of sums
This process involves the algebraic sum of individual output fuzzy sets
instead of their union. Here the weights are the areas the respective membership
functions.
_z z _n
k=1μCk (z) d z
Z* =
_z _n
k=1μCk (z) d z
UNIT –IV

1. Define core of a membership function.
The core of a membership function is defined as the region of universe that is characterized by complete and full membership function in the set.

2. Define core of a membership function.
The support of a membership function is defined as the region of universe that is characterized by non-zero membership function in the set.

3. Define boundaries of a membership function.
The support of a membership function is defined as the region of universe that is characterized by non-zero membership function but not complete membership in the set.

4. What is a normal fuzzy set?
A normal fuzzy set is one whose membership function has atleast one element x in the universe whose membership value is unity.


5. Define prototype of the set.
For fuzzy sets where one and only one element has a membership function equal to one, this element is referred to as prototype of the set.

6. Define a convex fuzzy set.
A convex fuzzy set is described by the membership function whose membership values are monotonically increasing, or decreasing.

7. Define cross over points of a membership function.
The support of a membership function is defined as the elements of the universe for which a particular fuzzy set has values equal to 0.5.

8. Define height of a fuzzy set.
Height of a fuzzy set is the maximum value of membership function in a given set.

9. List the three operators in GA
Cross over, Mutation and Reproduction.

10. Define Reproduction.
Reproduction is the process by which strings with better fitness values receive correspondingly better copies in the new generation.

11. Define Mutation.
Mutation is the process in which strings are able to mix and match their desirable qualities in a random fashion.

12. Define crisp ordering.
For issue sor actions that are deterministic there is no ambiquity in the ranking, we call this as crisp ordering.

13. Define degree of consensus.
The individual preference of those in the decision group are collected to form a group metric whose properties are used to produce a scalar measure of “degree of consensus”.

14. What are the two common measures of preference?
The two common measures of preference average fuzziness and average certainity.

15. What is Classical Bayesian decision method?
These presume that future states of nature can be characterized as probability events.

16. Define crisp ordering.
For issue sor actions that are deterministic there is no ambiquity in the ranking ,we call this as crisp ordering.



17. Define a convex fuzzy set.
A convex fuzzy set is described by the membership function whose membership values are monotonically increasing,or decreasing .

18. Define prototype of the set.
For fuzzy sets where one and only one element has a membership function equal to one,this element is referred to as prototype of the set.

19. Define degree of consensus.
The individual preference of those in the decision group are collected to form a group metric whose properties are used to produce a scalar measure of “degree of consensus”.
20. Define height of a fuzzy set.
Height of a fuzzy set is the maximum value of membership function in a given set.

UNIT –V

1.What are the basic elements of a fuzzy logic control system.
Scaling factors,Fuzzification,Defuzzification,Knowledge base,Decision making
Logic.
2. Give the structure of of a fuzzy production rule system.
A set of rules that represents the policies and heuristic strategies of expert
decision maker.
3. What are the assumptions to be made in a fuzzy control system design.
i) The plant is observable and controllable.
ii) A solution exists.
4. Define approximate reasoning
The input data ,rules and output action ,or consequence are generally fuzzy sets
expressed as membership functions defined in a proper space.The method used for
evaluation is approximate reasoning.
5. What is the purpose of Knowledge base module.
It contains knowledge about th input and output fuzzy partitions.It will include the
term set and the corresponding membersip functions defining the input variables to fuzzy
rule based systems.
6.Explain the steps in designing a fuzzy control system.
i) Identify the variables of the plant.
ii) Partition the universe of discourse into a number of fuzzy subsets.
7. List the features of fuzzy control system.
i) Fixed and uniform input-output scaling factors.
ii) Fixed membership functions.
8. Give the differential equation in Inverted pendulum.
-ml2 d2 _/dt2 + mlg sin _ = u(t)
9.What is the automating the control of depth of anaestesia.
It is to release the anaesthtist so that he or she can devote attention to other
tasks,such as controlling fluid balance.
10.Why modeling of the process, blood pressure control difficult .
Because the biological process like anaesthesia has a non-linear time varying
strcture,it suggests the use of rule based controllers.
11. How the depth of anaesthesia is controlled.
The depth of anaesthesia is controlled by a mixture of drugs that are injected
intravaneously or inhaled as gases.
12. What are the gases inhaled during anaesthesia.
Isoflourane is widely used ,more often in a mixture of 0 to 2 percent by volume
of isoflorane in oxygen or nitrous oxide.
13.What are the two different types of disturbances.
1.Surgical disturbances
2. Measurement noise and artifacts.
14.What is the purpose of a large sensor image chip.
It detects the motion vector and a fuzzy system decides if the motion is due to
trembling.
15. What is the purpose of fuzzy control system in a TV.
It controls the contrast ,brightness ,velocity modulation and sharpness.
16. Define an adaptive fuzzy system.
The input values are normalized and converted into fuzzy representations,the
models rule base is executed in parallel fashion to produce a consequent fuzzy region.
17. Define approximate reasoning
The input data ,rules and output action ,or consequence are generally fuzzy sets
expressed as membership functions defined in a proper space.The method used for
evaluation is approximate reasoning.
18. Explain the steps in designing a fuzzy control system.
i) Identify the variables of the plant.
iii) Partition the universe of discourse into a number of fuzzy subsets.
19. What are the assumptions to be made in a fuzzy control system design.
i) The plant is observable and controllable.
ii) A solution exists.
20.List some of the applications of fuzzy logic control system.
Inverted pendulum,Home heating system , Blood pressure during Anesthesia.