Definition and differences between pipe flow and open channel flow - Types of Flow - Properties of open channel - Fundamental equations - Velocity distribution in open channel - Steady uniform flow: Chezy equation, Manning equation - Best hydraulic sections for uniform flow - Computation in Uniform Flow - Specific energy and specific force - Critical depth and velocity.
UNIT II GRADUALLY V ARIED FLOW
Dynamic equations of gradually varied and spatially varied flows - Water surface flow profile classifications: Hydraulic Slope, Hydraulic Curve - Profile determination by Numerical method: Direct step method and Standard step method, Graphical method - Applications.
UNIT III RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW
Application of the energy equation for RVF - Critical depth and velocity - Critical, Sub-critical and Super-critical flow - Application of the momentum equation for RVF - Hydraulic jumps - Types - Energy dissipation - Surges and surge through channel transitions.
UNIT IV TURBINES
Impact of Jet on vanes - Turbines - Classification - Reaction turbines - Francis turbine, Radial flow turbines, draft tube and cavitation - Propeller and Kaplan turbines - Impulse turbine - Performance of turbine - Specific speed - Runaway speed - Similarity laws.
UNIT V PUMPS
Centrifugal pumps - Minimum speed to start the pump - NPSH - Cavitations in pumps - Operating characteristics - Multistage pumps - Reciprocating pumps - Negative slip - Flow separation conditions - Air vessels, indicator diagrams and its variations - Savings in work done - Rotary pumps: Gear pump.
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