UNIT I CONTROL SURVEYING
Horizontal and vertical control – Methods – specifications – triangulation- baseline – instruments and accessories – corrections – satellite stations – reduction to centre- trigonometrical levelling – single and reciprocal observations – traversing – Gale‟s table.
UNIT II SURVEY ADJUSTMENT
Errors Sources- precautions and corrections – classification of errors – true and most probable values- weighed observations – method of equal shifts –principle of least squares -0 normal equation – correlates- level nets- adjustment of simple triangulation networks.
UNIT III TOTAL STATION SURVEYING
Basic Principle – Classifications -Electro-optical system: Measuring principle, Working principle, Sources of Error, Infrared and Laser Total Station instruments. Microwave system: Measuring principle, working principle, Sources of Error, Microwave Total Station instruments. Comparis on between Electro-optical and Microwave system. Care and maintenance of Total Station instruments. Modern positioning systems – Traversing and Trilateration.
UNIT IV GPS SURVEYING
Basic Concepts - Different segments - space, control and user segments - satellite configuration - signal structure - Orbit determination and representation - Anti Spoofing and Selective Availability - Task of control segment – Hand Held and Geodetic receivers –data processing - Traversing and triangulation.
UNIT V ADVANCED TOPICS IN SURVEYING
Route Surveying - Reconnaissance - Route surveys for highways, railways and waterways - Simple curves – Compound and reverse curves - Setting out Methods – Transition curves - Functions and requirements - Setting out by offsets and angles - Vertical curves - Sight distances- hydrographic surveying – Tides - MSL - Sounding methods - Three-point problem - Strength of fix - Sextants and station pointer- Astronomical Surveying – field observations and determination of Azimuth by altitude and hour angle methods – fundamentals of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing