Cell and its structure – Resting and Action Potential – Nervous system and its fundamentals - Basic components of a biomedical system- Cardiovascular systems- Respiratory systems -Kidney and blood flow - Biomechanics of bone - Biomechanics of soft tissues - Basic mechanics of spinal column and limbs -Physiological signals and transducers - Transducers – selection criteria – Piezo electric, ultrasonic transducers - Temperature measurements - Fibre optic temperature sensors.
UNIT II NON ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
Measurement of blood pressure - Cardiac output - Heart rate - Heart sound - Pulmonary function measurements – spirometer – Photo Plethysmography, Body Plethysmography – Blood Gas analysers, pH of blood –measurement of blood pCO2, pO2, finger-tip oxymeter - ESR, GSR measurements.
UNIT III ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS
Electrodes – Limb electrodes –floating electrodes – pregelled disposable electrodes - Micro, needle and surface electrodes – Amplifiers, Preamplifiers, differential amplifiers, chopper amplifiers – Isolation amplifier - ECG – EEG – EMG – ERG – Lead systems and recording methods – Typical waveforms - Electrical safety in medical environment, shock hazards – leakage current-Instruments for checking safety parameters of biomedical equipments.
UNIT IV IMAGING MODALITIES AND ANALYSIS
Radio graphic and fluoroscopic techniques – Computer tomography – MRI – Ultrasonography – Endoscopy – Thermography –Different types of biotelemetry systems - Retinal Imaging - Imaging application in Biometric systems - Analysis of digital images.
UNIT V LIFE ASSISTING, THERAPEUTIC AND ROBOTIC DEVICES
Pacemakers – Defibrillators – Ventilators – Nerve and muscle stimulators – Diathermy – Heart – Lung machine – Audio meters – Dialysers – Lithotripsy - ICCU patient monitoring system - Nano Robots - Robotic surgery – Advanced 3D surgical techniques- Orthopedic prostheses fixation.
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