An overview of power system operation and control - system load variation - load characteristics - load curves and load-duration curve - load factor - diversity factor - Importance of load forecasting and quadratic and exponential curve fitting techniques of forecasting – plant level and system level controls .
UNIT II REAL POWER - FREQUENCY CONTROL
Basics of speed governing mechanism and modeling - speed-load characteristics – load sharing between two synchronous machines in parallel - control area concept - LFC control of a single-area system - static and dynamic analysis of uncontrolled and controlled cases - two-area system – modeling - static analysis of uncontrolled case - tie line with frequency bias control - state variable model - integration of economic dispatch control with LFC.
UNIT III REACTIVE POWER–VOLTAGE CONTROL
Generation and absorption of reactive power - basics of reactive power control - excitation systems – modeling - static and dynamic analysis - stability compensation - methods of voltage control: tapchanging transformer, SVC (TCR + TSC) and STATCOM – secondary voltage control.
UNIT IV UNIT COMMITMENT AND ECONOMIC DISPATCH
Formulation of economic dispatch problem – I/O cost characterization – incremental cost curve - coordination equations without and with loss (No derivation of loss coefficients) - solution by direct method and λ-iteration method - statement of unit commitment problem – priority-list method - forward dynamic programming.
UNIT V COMPUTER CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS
Need for computer control of power systems - concept of energy control centre - functions - system monitoring - data acquisition and control - system hardware configuration – SCADA and EMS functions - network topology - state estimation – WLSE - Contingency Analysis - state transition diagram showing various state transitions and control strategies.
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