Terms and definitions: Overloading - under voltage - over voltage. Concepts of transients - short duration variations such as interruption - long duration variation such as sustained interruption. Sags and swells - voltage sag - voltage swell - voltage imbalance - voltage fluctuation - power frequency variations. International standards of power quality. Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers Associations (CBEMA) curve.
UNIT II VOLTAGE SAGS AND INTERRUPTIONS
Sources of sags and interruptions - estimating voltage sag performance. Thevenin’s equivalent source - analysis and calculation of various faulted condition. Voltage sag due to induction motor starting. Estimation of the sag severity - mitigation of voltage sags, active series compensators. Static transfer switches and fast transfer switches.
UNIT III OVERVOLTAGES
Sources of over voltages - Capacitor switching – lightning - ferro resonance. Mitigation of voltage swells - surge arresters - low pass filters - power conditioners. Lightning protection – shielding - line arresters - protection of transformers and cables. An introduction to computer analysis tools for transients, PSCAD and EMTP.
UNIT IV HARMONICS
Harmonic sources from commercial and industrial loads, locating harmonic sources.Power system response characteristics - Harmonics Vs transients. Effect of harmonics - harmonic distortion - voltage and current distortion - harmonic indices - inter harmonics – resonance. Harmonic distortion evaluation - devices for controlling harmonic distortion - passive and active filters. IEEE and IEC standards.
UNIT V POWER QUALITY MONITORING
Monitoring considerations - monitoring and diagnostic techniques for various power quality problems - modeling of power quality (harmonics and voltage sag) problems by mathematical simulation tools - power line disturbance analyzer – quality measurement equipment - harmonic / spectrum analyzer - flicker meters - disturbance analyzer. Applications of expert systems for power quality monitoring.
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