Principles and need for protective schemes – nature and causes of faults – types of faults – fault current calculation using symmetrical components – Methods of Neutral grounding – Zones of protection and essential qualities of protection – Protection schemes.
UNIT II ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAYS
Operating principles of relays - the Universal relay – Torque equation – R-X diagram – Electromagnetic Relays – Overcurrent, Directional, Distance, Differential, Negative sequence and Under frequency relays.
UNIT III APPARATUS PROTECTION
Current transformers and Potential transformers and their applications in protection schemes - Protection of transformer, generator, motor, busbars and transmission line.
UNIT IV STATIC RELAYS AND NUMERICAL PROTECTION
Static relays – Phase, Amplitude Comparators – Synthesis of various relays using Static comparators – Block diagram of Numerical relays – Overcurrent protection, transformer differential protection, distant protection of transmission lines.
UNIT V CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Physics of arcing phenomenon and arc interruption - DC and AC circuit breaking – re-striking voltage and recovery voltage - rate of rise of recovery voltage - resistance switching - current chopping - interruption of capacitive current - Types of circuit breakers – air blast, air break, oil, SF6 and vacuum circuit breakers – comparison of different circuit breakers – Rating and selection of Circuit breakers.
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